Syndromes

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Syndromes

Syndromes A Short stature This may proportionate or disproportionate, or it may affect a region of the body asymmetrically. B Micromelia Shortening may affect the “root” or proximal segment, the…

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Neuromuscular Disorders

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Neuromuscular Disorders

Neuromuscular Disorders Neuromuscular disorders account for the greatest burden of chronic disability in children. Because motor dysfunction is often an early manifestation, the orthopædic surgeon may be the first to…

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Trauma

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Trauma

Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of death in children. It is second to infection as a cause of morbidity. Fractures peak during lunch play in school and in late…

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Tumors

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Tumors

Tumors Malignant tumors of the musculoskeletal system constitute 10% of new cancers in children, numbering approximately 1,000 cases in the United States per annum. Benign tumors are 10 times the…

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Infection

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Infection

Infection Musculoskeletal infections risk life, deformity, and disability. Infections and their treatment are evolving. Pyarthritis due to Hæmophilus influenzæ has declined due to vaccination. Antibiotic resistance is rising, for example,…

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Sports

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Sports

Sports BACKGROUND Participation in sports is on an inexorable rise in Western culture. At play in this trend are the societal prioritization of physical fitness; a zeal for competition; the…

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Foot and Ankle

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Foot and Ankle

Foot and Ankle ANATOMY Greek πºvζ (root πºδ-) is Latin pes (root ped-): “foot”, which gives the root -ped- in English. Do not confuse Greek παιζ (root παιδ-): “child”, which…

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Hip

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Hip

Hip GENERAL More than one-third of hip problems in adults have their origin during growth. Development The distal femur is the only epiphysis consistently present at birth. The proximal epiphysis…

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Lower Limb

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Lower Limb

Lower Limb ANATOMY The lower limb spans the head of the femur to the toes. The leg lies between knee joint and ankle joint. Structures of the thigh are referred…

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Spine

Aug 18, 2016 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Spine

Spine Converse to adults, deformity commands the largest proportion of spine care in children. Back pain, while not infrequent, in most children will have no identifiable cause. EMBRYOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT…

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