RHEUMATOLOGY

Pediatric Sarcoidosis

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Pediatric Sarcoidosis

Pediatric sarcoidosis comprises a spectrum of childhood granulomatous inflammatory conditions with the hallmark being the presence of noncaseating epithelioid giant cell granulomas in a variety of tissues and organ systems….

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Reactive Arthritis

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Reactive Arthritis

The reactive arthritides constitute a group of diverse inflammatory arthropathies in which the joint and extraarticular manifestations are caused by a preceding extraarticular infection with specific bacteria. This chapter reviews…

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Pain Amplification Syndromes

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Pain Amplification Syndromes

Pediatric rheumatologists encounter children with acute and chronic pain for which an overt primary cause for the pain cannot be found. In these disorders the pain seems disproportional or amplified….

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Raynaud Phenomenon and Vasomotor Syndromes

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Raynaud Phenomenon and Vasomotor Syndromes

Episodic color changes of the hands and feet in response to cold or stress, known as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), are a frequent complaint among patients presenting to pediatric rheumatology clinics….

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Lyme Disease

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Lyme Disease

Lyme arthritis was first described in 1977 by Steere and colleagues in a cluster of children thought to have juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. They lived in and around Old Lyme, Connecticut….

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Polyarteritis Nodosa

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Polyarteritis Nodosa

Introduction Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) was first described by Kussmaul and Maier in 1866. The original and subsequent descriptions identified the pathological features of necrotizing arteritis with nodules along the walls…

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Vasculitis and Its Classification

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Vasculitis and Its Classification

The term vasculitis indicates the presence of inflammation in a blood vessel wall. The inflammatory infiltrate may be one that is predominantly neutrophilic, eosinophilic, or mononuclear. Perivasculitis describes inflammation around…

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Behçet Disease

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Behçet Disease

Introduction and Historical Review In 1937, the Turkish dermatologist Hulusi Behçet described the syndrome that bears his name, which manifests with the clinical triad of aphthous stomatitis, genital ulceration, and…

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Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus

Etiology and Pathogenesis Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is a disease of the developing fetus and neonate defined by characteristic clinical features in the presence of specific maternal autoantibodies. It is…

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Enthesitis Related Arthritis

Jun 30, 2019 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Enthesitis Related Arthritis

Definition and Classification Enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA), a term introduced in the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), is defined according to the inclusion…

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