RHEUMATOLOGY

Adaptive immunity

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Adaptive immunity

• Unlike the innate immune response, the adaptive immune response is characterized by specific antigen recognition and immunologic memory. • Lymphocytes are the key cell types of the adaptive immune…

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Nutrition of the critically ill child

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Nutrition of the critically ill child

• Provision of individually tailored optimal nutrition is an important goal of pediatric critical care. • Malnutrition is prevalent in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and is associated with…

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Malignant hyperthermia

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Malignant hyperthermia

• Risk factors for malignant hyperthermia (MH) include a family history of severe hyperthermia or sudden hypermetabolic state during anesthesia with exposure to succinylcholine and/or potent inhalation anesthetics, and ryanodine…

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Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

Pearls • Cardiac arrest in pediatric patients is predominantly due to asphyxia. This is in contrast to adults, for whom, despite an increase in asphyxial cardiac arrest related to the…

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Tolerance, dependency, and withdrawal

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Tolerance, dependency, and withdrawal

• Physical dependency and withdrawal have been documented in all agents used for sedation and analgesia in the pediatric intensive care unit, including benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opioids, dexmedetomidine, propofol, and the…

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Neuromuscular blocking agents

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Neuromuscular blocking agents

• Through the blockade of skeletal muscle function, neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) cause cessation of respiratory function, mandating airway control and the institution of mechanical ventilation. NMBAs should not be…

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