RHEUMATOLOGY

Pediatric thoracic trauma

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Pediatric thoracic trauma

• Because of increased bone elasticity, rib fractures are uncommon in children and indicate significant traumatic energy delivery, raising concern for injuries of underlying viscera or nonaccidental trauma. • Children…

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Renal structure and function

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Renal structure and function

Pearls • Development of the definitive human kidney or metanephros begins at 5 weeks’ gestation and is complete by 34 to 36 weeks’ gestation, with an average of 1 million…

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Immune balance in critical illness

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Immune balance in critical illness

Pearls • The inflammatory response to critical illness is highly dynamic over time, involves both innate and adaptive immunity, and includes both pro- and antiinflammatory features. • These features constitute…

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Accidental hypothermia

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Accidental hypothermia

• Accidental or unintentional hypothermia is a potentially lethal complication of exposure to cold. It can occur as a result of exposure to cold air, water immersion/submersion, or snow burial….

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Adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions

Pearls • Adverse drug events (ADEs) are defined as any injury resulting from both prescribed and unintended administration of drugs, including inappropriate use or inadvertent side effects not associated with…

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Congenital immunodeficiency

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Congenital immunodeficiency

• Greater than 300 single-gene defects have now been associated with specific immunodeficiencies, with new disorders continually being recognized. • Chronic granulomatous disease is the most frequently diagnosed phagocytic cell…

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Critical illness and the microbiome

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Critical illness and the microbiome

• Like all organisms, humans have evolved in concert with microbes that serve numerous physiologic and immune functions during normal development and homeostasis. • Critical illness in both children and…

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Endocrine emergencies

May 20, 2021 by in RHEUMATOLOGY Comments Off on Endocrine emergencies

Pearls • Cortisol is a key mediator of the stress response—influencing immunity, metabolism, and modulating the transcription of perhaps 25% of the entire genome. • Relative adrenal insufficiency and critical…

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