Clinical examination and diagnosis

May 1, 2019 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Clinical examination and diagnosis

Summary box 1 A brachial plexus injury can be defined by four elements, which are analogous to the four dimensions of space: breadth (number of roots involved), length (level), depth…

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Reconstructive procedures for the upper extremity

May 1, 2019 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Reconstructive procedures for the upper extremity

Summary box 1 Multidisciplinary approach 2 Reconstructive approach needs to be individualized 3 Thorough discussion with patients is important for realistic expectation and discussions of the risk–benefit ratio 4 Early…

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Thoracic outlet syndrome

May 1, 2019 by in ORTHOPEDIC Comments Off on Thoracic outlet syndrome

Summary box 1 Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a term that includes several specific diagnoses, including 2 common forms of the syndrome: vascular (arterial and venous) and neurogenic TOS. 2…

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