Laboratory Activities



Laboratory Activities



Chapter 4


Laboratory Activities



Structure and Function of the Shoulder Complex


Palpation and Identification of Selected Bones and Joints


An important objective of this section is to palpate the surface anatomy related to the musculoskeletal system of the shoulder. Students will identify selected structures on their classmates, preferably working in same-sex teams. Proper attire is essential for learning. Females must wear a halter top or sports bra or something similar that bares the shoulders, spine, and ribs, whereas males must remove their shirts. Not all structures can be found on your partner, and these should be located on a skeletal model.


Using a skeletal model, identify the following bony landmarks. The landmarks marked with an asterisk (*) can be palpated on a partner, and each landmark can also be located on the following images.


Mosby items and derived items © 2014, 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Some material was previously published.





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Scapula      
Coracoid process* Inferior glenoid tubercle Scapular spine* Superior glenoid tubercle
Glenoid fossa Infraspinatous fossa Subscapular fossa Supraspinatous fossa
Inferior angle* Medial border*    


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Muscle Analysis


Students will use a piece of thin rubber tubing (or string) and a skeleton to mimic the overall line of force of muscles of the shoulder complex. By placing one end of the tubing at the proximal attachment of a muscle and the other end at the distal attachment, the muscle’s line of force can be observed. This is referred to as “stringing up” muscles. The purpose of this exer- cise is to understand the actions of muscles on the basis of their line of force relative to the axes of rotation at the joint. This approach encourages analysis rather than rote memorization of muscle action. To assist with this process, students should refer to the osteology section of Chapter 4, noting that proximal attachments of muscles are shown in red and distal attachments are shown in gray. The actual attachments of the muscles are listed within Chapter 4.




Review of Muscle Actions and Palpation of Selected Muscles


Students should attempt to palpate each muscle after reviewing its actions. The individual doing the palpating must first explain to his or her partner the correct actions of a particular muscle and, second, correctly apply manual resistance against the muscle’s actions. Maximally activating a muscle is usually achieved by including all or most of a muscle’s potential actions and by applying significant resistance against these actions—this is a skill that must be practiced. Proper attire must be worn during this portion of the laboratory.


The actual palpation of the active muscle is the last step in this process. The muscle should be palpated at or near its belly, usually when the external resistance is at its maximum, and the muscle is in an isometric state, near its midrange. The lack of movement often makes it easier to visually and manually identify the muscle belly. Some muscles are best palpated at the muscle’s tendon, not its belly. Most shoulder muscles are best palpated at their belly.









Motion Analysis


Answer the following questions regarding the figure pictured. Part A represents the action of pulling the weight (pulley) toward the chest, whereas part B illustrates the individual slowly lowering the weight until the arms are in a fully extended position.


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1) Which of the following statements is true regarding figure A?



2) Which of the following statements is true regarding figure B?



3) Which of the following statements is true regarding figure A?



4) Which of the following statements are true regarding figure B?



5) This motion (at the shoulder) occurs around which axis of rotation?



6) In order for a muscle to perform the motion shown in figure A, its line of pull must be ____________ to the axis of rotation.



7) Provide two likely reasons that this motion can typically produce very large forces.




Additional Activities




1) Using the images provided below and on pp. 4-8 and 4-9, identify the following muscles:
















Latissimus dorsi Rhomboid minor
Levator scapula Serratus anterior
Pectoralis major Supraspinatus
Rhomboid major  

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2) Palpate the inferior angle of your partner’s scapula while his or her arm is:



This should demonstrate the upward rotation of the scapula.


3) Firmly stabilize the scapula while your partner attempts to fully abduct the shoulder. Roughly how much shoulder abduction has occurred? Why is it limited?


4) Track the motion of the scapula when performing the following motions. List the scapular motion that occurs next to the shoulder motion listed.



5) Using a goniometer, measure the amount of shoulder flexion available when the elbow is fully flexed versus when the elbow is fully extended. Which one allows the greatest range of motion into flexion? Why?


6) Analyze your partner performing a “seated boost” maneuver (sometimes called a “sitting push-up”) with the elbows fully extended throughout the motion. What are the primary muscles involved with this motion? Weakness of the serratus anterior is likely to result in “winging” during this motion. Why?


Chapter 5


Laboratory Activities



Structure and Function of the Elbow and Forearm Complex


Palpation and Identification of Selected Bones and Joints


An important objective of this section is to palpate the surface anatomy related to the musculoskeletal system of the elbow and forearm complex. Students will identify selected structures on their classmates. Not all structures can be found on your partner, and these should be located on a skeletal model.


Using a skeletal model, identify the following bony landmarks. The landmarks marked with an asterisk (*) can be palpated on a partner, and each landmark can also be located on the following images.


Mosby items and derived items © 2014, 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Some material was previously published.





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Muscle Analysis


Students will use a piece of thin rubber tubing (or string) and a skeleton to mimic the overall line of force of muscles of the elbow and forearm complex. By placing one end of the tubing at the proximal attachment of a muscle and the other end at the distal attachment, the muscle’s line of force can be observed. This is referred to as “stringing up” muscles. The purpose of this exercise is to understand the actions of muscles on the basis of their line of force relative to the axes of rotation at the joint. To assist with this process, students should refer to the osteology section of Chapter 5, noting that proximal attachments of muscles are shown in red and distal attachments are shown in gray. The actual attachments of the muscles are listed within Chapter 5.




Review of Muscle Actions and Palpation of Selected Muscles


Students should attempt to palpate each muscle after reviewing its actions. The individual doing the palpating must first explain to his or her partner the correct actions of a particular muscle and, second, correctly apply manual resistance against the muscle’s actions. Maximally activating a muscle is usually achieved by including all or most of a muscle’s potential actions and by applying significant resistance against these actions—this is a skill that must be practiced.


The actual palpation of the active muscle is the last step in this process. The muscle should be palpated at or near its belly, usually when the external resistance is at its maximum, and the muscle is in an isometric state, near its midrange. The lack of movement often makes it easier to visually and manually identify the muscle belly. Some muscles are best palpated at the muscle’s tendon, not its belly.








Motion Analysis


Answer the following questions regarding the figure pictured on p. 5-5. Part A displays the beginning position, when the weight is being pulled toward the chest, whereas part B displays a point, just after the midposition (shoulder extended and hand near the chest), when the weight is being lowered toward the starting position (see part A). It is assumed that both parts of this motion are active.



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Refer to the images on p. 5-5.



1) Determine whether the following statements are true or false regarding the beginning position (part A) of the movement, and justify your answer.



2) Determine whether the following statements are true or false regarding part B, as the weight is being lowered. Justify your answer.



3) How do the biceps brachii and the long head of the triceps work “together” during this activity?



Additional Activities




1) Using the images provided below and on p. 5-8, identify the following muscles: Biceps brachii



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2) Perform a manual muscle test for elbow extension:



Which position was able to produce the most force (resistance)? Why?


3) Have your partner hold the end of a dowel or a cane in one hand while pronating and supinating the forearm. Make sure that the shoulder is fixed so that it cannot assist with the action. Analyze the movement and determine the following:



4) With a wax pencil, trace the fiber direction of the interosseous membrane on your partner. If done correctly, you should be able to ascertain how compressive force through the hand and radius is transferred to the ulna. What structures exist to help prevent a pulling force on the hand and radius from pulling the radius out of joint?


Chapters 6 and 7


Laboratory Activities



Structure and Function of the Wrist and Hand


Palpation and Identification of Selected Bones and Joints


An important objective of this section will be to palpate the surface anatomy related to the musculoskeletal system. Students will identify selected structures on their classmates. Not all structures can be found on your partner, and these should be located on a skeletal model.


Using a skeletal model, identify the following bony landmarks. The landmarks marked with an asterisk (*) can be palpated on a partner, and each landmark can also be located on the following images.


Mosby items and derived items © 2014, 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Some material was previously published.

























Capitate* Metacarpal heads* Scaphoid*
Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb* Pisiform* Trapezium
Hamate Radial styloid* Trapezoid
Head of the ulna* Radial tubercle* Triquetrum
Lunate Radiocarpal joint Ulnar styloid process

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Muscle Analysis


Students will be expected to use a piece of thin rubber tubing (or string) and a skeleton to mimic the overall line of force of all muscles of the wrist and hand. By placing one end of the tubing at the proximal attachment of a muscle and the other end at the distal attachment, the muscle’s line of force can be observed. This is referred to as “stringing up” muscles. The purpose of this exercise is to understand the actions of muscles on the basis of their line of force relative to the axes of rotation at the joint. This approach encourages analysis rather than rote memorization of muscle action. To assist with this process, students should refer to the osteology sections of Chapters 6 and 7, noting that in Chapter 7 proximal attachments of muscles are shown in red and distal attachments are shown in gray. The actual attachments of the muscles are listed within Chapters 6 and 7.




Review of Muscle Actions and Palpation of Selected Muscles


Students should attempt to palpate each muscle after reviewing its actions. The individual doing the palpating must first explain to his or her partner the correct actions of a particular muscle and, second, that manual resistance is correctly applied against the muscle’s actions. Maximally activating a muscle is usually achieved by including all or most of a muscle’s potential actions and by applying significant resistance to these actions—this is a skill that must be practiced.


The actual palpation of the active muscle is the last step in this process. The muscle should be palpated at or near its belly, usually when the external resistance is at its maximum and the muscle is in an isometric state, near its midrange. The lack of movement often makes it easier to visually and manually identify the muscle belly. Some muscles are best palpated at the muscle’s tendon, not its belly.











Additional Activities




1) Using the images provided below, identify the following muscles. (Note that not all muscles are shown.)













Extensor carpi radialis brevis Flexor carpi radialis
Extensor carpi radialis longus Flexor carpi ulnaris
Extensor digitorum Palmaris longus

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2) With a goniometer, measure the active range of motion for wrist flexion with:



Which scenario permits the most range of motion? Justify your answer in terms of passive insufficiency.


3) With a goniometer, measure the active range of motion for wrist extension with:



Which scenario permits the largest range of motion? Why?


4) Using a hand dynamometer, measure grip strength with the wrist held in:


Dec 5, 2016 | Posted by in MANUAL THERAPIST | Comments Off on Laboratory Activities
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