Chapter 58 Alzheimer’s disease

Dementia can be defined as an acquired global impairment of cognitive function (i.e. the intellectual abilities involved in thinking, learning and remembering) with no decrease in the level of consciousness. There are many causes (Table 3.58.1), but by far the most common in industrialized countries is the topic of this chapter, Alzheimer’s disease.

Table 3.58.1 Common causes of dementia

Disorders Examples
Primary neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease; Pick’s disease; Huntington’s disease; diffuse Lewy body disease
Secondary dementias  
Cerebrovascular disease Multi-infarct dementia
Prion diseases (spongiform encephalopathies) Creutzfeld–Jacob disease; variant Creutzfeld–Jacob disease
Microorganisms Neurosyphilis, HIV
Gross structural abnormalities Hydrocephalus; space-occupying lesions
Metabolic abnormalities Hypothyroidism; liver failure
Repeated diffuse trauma Dementia pugilistica
Toxins Chronic alcoholism; lead poisoning
Demyelinating diseases Multiple sclerosis
Vitamin deficiencies B1, B2, B12

Jul 3, 2016 | Posted by in MUSCULOSKELETAL MEDICINE | Comments Off on disease

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