The Foot and Ankle





The human foot is a marvelous anatomic structure that provides a stable base to support large amounts of weight and shifts in any direction to maintain structural support. The bones of the foot are arranged to both balance body weight and negotiate irregular terrain. The average person will walk an estimated 20,000 to 46,000 miles in a lifetime, and, for that reason, may seek the expertise of an orthopaedic foot and ankle specialist or a podiatrist.


The orthopaedic surgeon is a board-certified, medical school graduate who treats many major problems related to the foot and ankle such as congenital deformities, traumatic injuries, degenerative conditions, athletic injuries, and deformities. The orthopaedic foot and ankle specialist provides surgical and nonsurgical care. Problems of the feet are so numerous and treatment has become so complex that foot and ankle care has become a subspecialty of orthopaedics. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons have been directly responsible for establishing a subspecialty devoted to injuries, diseases, and surgery of the foot and ankle. This subspecialization is now a part of many residency training programs.


The podiatrist, a doctor of podiatric medicine, is a graduate of a 4-year, doctoral-level program in podiatry. After residency, he or she becomes board certified in foot and ankle surgery and primary care in podiatric medicine. The podiatrist is devoted to diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the human foot, including biomechanics applied to orthotics and prosthetics, instructing patients in proper shoe fit and providing general foot care. The practice encompasses nonsurgical and surgical treatment.


The pedorthist, a board-certified specialist in special footwear modifications and orthoses, provides services such as footwear modifications and filling prescriptions for special lines of shoes, customized inserts, and numerous foot support orthotics in the treatment of a variety of conditions.


In larger institutions, the orthopaedist may work in association with a podiatrist and pedorthist in the care of patients with ankle- and foot-related problems. A team approach provides the advantage of comprehensive, convenient, coordinated foot and ankle care. This team includes the orthopaedist, podiatrist, pedorthist, orthotist, and physical therapist. These specialists work independently but may also make up the orthopaedic foot and ankle service team. For that reason, we have included many terms specific to podiatry along with the generally interchangeable terms of anatomy, diseases, and surgery of the foot and ankle.


Anatomy


The human foot is composed of 26 bones plus a varying number of ossicles or sesamoid bones and is divided into three functional units: the hindfoot (talus and calcaneus), midfoot (cuneiforms, cuboid, and navicular), and forefoot (metatarsals and phalanges). The joints between the calcaneus, talus, navicular, and cuboid bones permit most of the motion in turning the foot inward (inversion) or outward (eversion).


The bones of the midfoot and hindfoot are part of the longitudinal arch. The arch’s function is to smoothly transmit weight from the hindfoot to the forefoot during gait, and to negotiate irregular terrain. During gait, the foot experiences forces that can be as much as two to four times the body weight. The joints between all of the bones of the arch work together to remain flexible and absorb shock when the heel strikes the ground. The joints remain flexible as weight is transferred through the midfoot to allow the foot to conform to the terrain. The joints tighten and the arch becomes fixed as body weight shifts to the forefoot so that the foot becomes a rigid lever to propel the body forward. Coordinated muscle forces control the transition from flexible to rigid and back to flexible.


During a step on a normal foot, the focus of force on the foot starts at the heel, travels toward the forefoot along the lateral border of the foot, and then travels medially across the ball of the foot to finish at the hallux (great toe). The mechanical complexities of the foot make it fascinating to study. Figures 11-1 to 11-4 will assist in understanding these structures. Injuries around the ankle joint receive the most attention and are discussed in Chapter 1 .






Fig. 11-1Bones of right foot viewed from above. Tarsal bones consist of cuneiforms, navicular, talus, cuboid, and calcaneus. (From Anthony C, Kolthoff N: Textbook of anatomy and physiology, ed 9, St Louis, 1975, Mosby.)





Fig. 11-2The arteries and nerves of the plantar surface of the foot. (Figure taken from Textbook of Human Anatomy copyright United Kingdom, 1976, W.J. Hamilton. Reproduced by permission of Macmillan Publishers, Ltd.)





Fig. 11-3Muscles of sole. A, First layer. B, Second layer. C, Third and fourth layers. (Figure taken from Textbook of Human Anatomy copyright United Kingdom, 1976, W.J. Hamilton. Reproduced by permission of Macmillan Publishers, Ltd.)







Fig. 11-4 A, Retinacular and synovial sheaths of ankle region, medial view. B, Retinacular and synovial sheaths of ankle region, lateral view. In figure A, the flexor retinaculum (superior and inferior) is mislabeled as the extensor retinaculum. Would also relabel medial ligament as deltoid ligament. (Figure taken from Textbook of Human Anatomy copyright United Kingdom, 1976, W.J. Hamilton. Reproduced by permission of Macmillan Publishers, Ltd.)


Bones of the Ankle and Foot





  • accessory navicular: an “extra” bone or ossicle on the medial side of the navicular, present in up to 14% of the population. It is actually a tertiary center of ossification, and its interface with the navicular bone can be a source of pain. Also called os tibiale externum.



  • acetabulum pedis: osteoligamentous complex involving the talus, navicular, and calcaneus that functions as a ball and socket joint with the foot rotating about the talar head.



  • calcaneus: the heel bone; largest of the bones of the foot, articulates with the talus and cuboid. The combining form is calcaneo, for example, calcaneofibular ligament, or calcaneocuboid joint.



  • cuboid: cube-shaped bone on the lateral side of the foot, just distal to the calcaneus and articulating with the bases of the fourth and fifth metatarsals.



  • cuneiforms: three wedge-shaped bones lying just proximal to the first three metatarsals and distal to the navicular bone. In combination with the cuboid, they form the transverse arch. From medial to lateral, they are called the first, second, and third cuneiforms or the medial (middle and lateral cuneiforms).



  • distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint: the joint between the middle phalanx and distal phalanx of one of the lesser toes.



  • forefoot: portion of foot containing metatarsals, phalanges, and sesamoids.



  • hallux (pl. halluces): the great toe.



  • hindfoot: calcaneal (heel bone) and talar (ankle bone) portion of the foot; also called rear foot.



  • interphalangeal (IP) joint: the joint between the proximal phalanx and distal phalanx of the great toe.



  • lateral column: main weight-bearing structures of the outer side of the foot including the calcaneus, cuboid, and fourth and fifth metatarsals.



  • malleolus: the prominence of bone on either side of the ankle providing for increased ankle stability. The medial and lateral malleoli come from the tibia and fibula, respectively. The posterior malleolus is deep to the Achilles tendon and is a part of the tibia.



  • medial column: main weight-bearing structure including the talus, navicular, cuneiforms, and the first through third metatarsals.



  • metatarsals: the five long bones of the foot between the tarsals and the phalanges.



  • midfoot: portion of foot containing the navicular, three cuneiforms, and cuboid.



  • midtarsal joint: comprises the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid articulations and permits adduction-abduction and inversion-eversion motions of the forefoot; also called transverse tarsal joint and Chopart joint.



  • navicular: tarsal bone on medial side of foot that articulates proximally with head of talus and distally with three cuneiforms. Formerly called the scaphoid.



  • os: bone; also used in conjunction with a whole bone such as the calcis (calcaneus). However, os usually refers to small ossicles (small bones) or anatomic variants:




    • os intercuneiforme: between the medial and intermediate cuneiform.



    • os intermetatarseum: between the proximal first and second as well as the fourth and fifth metatarsals.



    • os peroneum: in the peroneus longus tendon plantar and lateral to the cuboid.



    • os subfibulare: distal to the fibula.



    • os sustentaculum: the medial junction between the talus and calcaneus.



    • os talocalcaneus: the large accessory bone bridging the lateral talus and calcaneus.



    • ossa tarsi: the seven proximal bones of the foot connecting the tibia and fibula to the five metatarsals. The combining form tarso is used often, for example, tarsometatarsal joints and ligaments; also called tarsus, bony tarsus, and tarsus osseous.



    • os tibiale externum: medial navicular of foot; also called accessory navicular.



    • os trigonum: posterior to talus; can be easily confused with a fracture of the posterior lateral tubercle of the talus.



    • os vesalianum: directly proximal to the fifth metatarsal.




  • parabola: cascade of the metatarsal heads with the second metatarsal approximating or being longer than the first metatarsal.



  • phalanx: the toe; more specifically, the two bones of the great toe and three bones of each of the four small toes. It is not uncommon for the fourth or fifth toe to have the middle and distal phalanges fused and to have two phalanges only.



  • proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint: the joint between the proximal and middle phalanx of one of the lesser toes.



  • sesamoid: two seed-shaped bones in the flexor hallucis brevis tendon located beneath the first metatarsal head, helping to plantar flex the great toe and protect the flexor halluces longus tendon, which is situated between them.



  • Stieda process: an elongated lateral tubercle of the posterior process of the talus. When forms separate from the talus is called os trigonum.



  • subtalar joint: the main shock absorber for the foot that also allows the foot to accommodate to uneven ground; this joint comprises the talocalcaneal articulation and permits composite motion of the hindfoot in all three planes simultaneously.



  • sustentaculum tali: a bony projection of the medial calcaneus that supports the talus.



  • talocalcaneal bar: a tarsal coalition that denotes a bony or fibrocartilaginous bridge between the talus and the calcaneus.



  • talus: one of the three bones making up the ankle joint beneath the tibia that helps make up one-third of the ankle joint, allowing for ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The talocalcaneal (subtalar joint) below the ankle joint allows the heel to invert (turn in) and evert (turn out). The talonavicular ligaments originate from the talus; also called astragalus. The spring ligament (the inferior calcaneonavicular ligament) extends from the sustentaculum of the calcaneus to the navicular and supports the head of the talus.



  • tarsal coalition: an abnormal bony, fibrocartilaginous, or fibrous bridge between the tarsal bones. It is present at birth, but it only becomes symptomatic as one approaches skeletal maturity.



  • tarsometatarsal joint: this joint comprises the tarsal and metatarsal articulations and is also called Lisfranc joint.



Muscles and Tendons





  • abductor hallucis: short muscle on medial side that pulls the great toe away from the midline of the foot and supports medial longitudinal arch.



  • Achilles tendon: the long tendon of the calf composed of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris muscles and inserting into the calcaneus; also called heel cord and tendocalcaneus. This is the largest tendon in the body with regards to cross-sectional area.



  • adductor hallucis: short muscle that attaches to base of great toe, pulls it toward the midline of the foot, and prevents spreading of the metatarsal bones.



  • anterior tibial tendon (tibialis anterior): longtendon originating from the anterior compartment of the leg; inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal; helps to dorsiflex the foot.



  • extensor digitorum longus and brevis: long tendon originating from the anterior compartment of the leg and short tendon from foot, respectively; pulls the lesser toes up in dorsiflexion (extension) and stabilizes the lesser metatarsophalangeal joints. There is no brevis tendon to the fifth toe.



  • extensor hallucis longus and brevis: long tendon from the leg and short tendon from foot, respectively; pulls the great toe up in dorsiflexion (extension) and stabilizes the first metatarsophalangeal joint.



  • flexor digitorum longus and brevis: long tendon from the deep posterior compartment of the leg and short muscle and tendon from the foot, respectively; insert into the distal and middle phalanges, respectively; plantar flexes the toes at all three joints.



  • flexor hallucis longus and brevis: long tendon from the deep posterior compartment of the leg and short muscle from the foot, respectively; insert into distal and proximal phalanges of the great toe, respectively; function to flex the great toe and support the medial longitudinal arch of foot; may have a role in equilibrium.



  • interosseous muscles: the group of small muscles between the metatarsals that attach to the extensor tendons over the toes; extend the interphalangeal joints and flex the metatarsophalangeal joints.



  • intrinsic muscles: similar to the hand, the intrinsic muscles arise from the metatarsals. The intrinsic muscles include:




    • abductor hallucis



    • abductor digiti minimi



    • adductor hallucis



    • dorsal and plantar interosseous



    • extensor digitorum brevis



    • extensor hallucis brevis



    • flexor digitorum brevis



    • flexor digiti minimi



    • flexor hallucis brevis



    • lumbricals



    • quadratus plantae




  • peroneus brevis tendon: arises from the lateral compartment of the leg and courses along the posterior fibula; inserts onto the dorsolateral base of the fifth metatarsal; functions to evert the hindfoot.



  • peroneus longus tendon: arises from the lateral compartment of the leg and courses along the posterior fibula; turns medially at the cuboid to cross the foot and insert onto the plantar base of the first metatarsal; functions to plantar flex the first metatarsal, stabilize the arch, and everts the hindfoot.



  • peroneus quartus: arises from the leg and courses along the posterior fibula; inserts onto the lateral calcaneus, cuboid, or base of the fifth metatarsal. It is not commonly present and can be confused for a tear in either of the peroneal tendons.



  • peroneus tertius: arises from the anterior compartment of the leg and courses along the anterior fibula; inserts onto the dorsolateral base of the fifth metatarsal; functions to dorsiflex and evert the foot.



  • posterior tibial tendon: tendon of the tibialis posterior muscle; passes along the medial malleolus and inserts into the navicular, medial cuneiform, and plantar aspect of the midfoot; functions to invert and plantarflex the foot, assist the gastrocsoleus complex, and stabilize the longitudinal arch; also called tibialis posterior.



  • quadratus plantae: muscle arising from the plantar surface of the calcaneus; functions to assist toe flexion and stabilize the longitudinal arch.



Ligaments


Ligaments are typically named for the origins and insertions of the bones they connect and stabilize and include the following:




  • bifurcate l.: originates from the anterior process of the calcaneus and has two branches; one inserting onto the cuboid and the second inserting onto the navicular.



  • collateral l.: of the phalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints.



  • deltoid l.: broad, triangular ligament on the medial side of the ankle that connects the medial malleolus to the talus, calcaneus, and navicular.



  • flexor retinaculum: in the foot is a broad band from the medial malleolus to the posterior calcaneus creating the tarsal tunnel. Also called laciniate ligament .



  • lateral collateral ligaments: three ligaments that stabilize the lateral ankle; anterior talofibular l., calcaneofibular l., and the posterior talofibular l.



  • Lisfranc l.: a ligament that connects the plantar surface of the medial cuneiform and plantar surface of the second metatarsal.



  • long plantar l.: connects the proximal plantar aspect of the calcaneus to the cuboid.



  • short plantar l.: connects the distal plantar aspect of the calcaneus and cuboid lies deep to the long plantar ligament.



  • spring l.: very strong and key ligament of the arch; connects the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus to the plantar navicular; provides plantar support to the head of the talus; also called plantar calcaneonavicular l.



  • tarsal ligaments




    • deep transverse metatarsal l.



    • dorsal and plantar cuneocuboid l.



    • dorsal and plantar cuneonavicular l.



    • dorsal and plantar intercuneiform l.



    • dorsal and plantar metatarsal l.



    • dorsal and plantar tarsometatarsal l.



    • talocalcaneal l.



    • talonavicular l.




The Nail





  • eponychium: the epidermal layer covering the nail root; also called cuticle.



  • hyponychium: the thickened epidermis underneath the free distal edge of the nail plate.



  • lunula: half-moon-shaped, lighter area at the proximal base of the nail next to the root.



  • nail matrix: the proximal portion of nail bed from which growth chiefly proceeds; also, the tissue on which the deep aspect of the nail rests; also called matrix unguis and nail bed.



  • nail plate : hard portion of epidermis on dorsal side of hallux and phalanges from which the nails grow; also called unguis.



Miscellaneous Foot Terms





  • 1–2 intermetatarsal angle: formed at the intersection of lines drawn along the longitudinal axes of the first and second metatarsals on an anteroposterior x-ray of the foot; used to assess metatarsus primus varus when evaluating a bunion or hallux valgus.



  • 1–5 intermetatarsal angle: formed at the intersection of lines drawn along the longitudinal axes of the first and fifth metatarsals on an anteroposterior x-ray of the foot; used to assess splayfoot.



  • 4–5 intermetatatrsal angle: formed at the intersection of lines drawn along the longitudinal axes of the fourth and fifth metatarsals on an anteroposterior x-ray of the foot; used to assess a bunionette.



  • ankle mortise: a recessed space formed by the tibia and fibula providing a stable talus within the akle joint.



  • anterior talo-first metatarsal a.: formed at the intersection of lines drawn along the longitudinal axes of the first metatarsal and talus on an anteroposterior x-ray of the foot; used to assess forefoot adduction and abduction.



  • Bohler a.: formed at the intersection of lines drawn from the posterosuperior process of the calcaneus tuberosity to the posterior margin of the posterior facet; and from the anterior process of the calcaneus to the anterior margin of the posterior facet on a lateral x-ray of the foot; used to assess the amount of depression of the posterior facet of the calcaneus in a calcaneus fracture.



  • critical angle of Gissane: formed at the intersection of lines drawn along the margins of the posterior facet of the calcaneus and the anterior body of the calcaneus on a lateral x-ray of the foot; used to assess alignment of a calcaneus fracture.



  • distal metatarsal articular a.: formed at the intersection of a line formed by connecting the medial and lateral margins of the first metatarsal head articular surface, and a line parallel to the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal on an anteroposterior x-ray of the foot; used to evaluate a bunion or hallux valgus.



  • fat pad: thick fibrous collection of fat on the plantar surface of the heel and forefoot.



  • Feiss line: a line drawn from the tip of the medial malleolus to plantar aspect of the first metatarsophalangeal joint during clinical examination; used to assess arch height.



  • Gschwind classification: for cerebral palsy, 4 group classification of foot pronation deformities.



  • Haglund process: enlargement of the posterosuperior process of the calcaneus; usually congenital.



  • hallux valgus a.: formed at intersection of lines drawn along longitudinal axes of proximal phalanx of the hallux and the first metatarsal on an anteroposterior x-ray of the foot; used to assess bunion or hallux valgus.



  • interdigital space: the area between the adjacent metatarsals and phalanges.



  • Meary a.: measured between lines drawn along the longitudinal axes of the talus and the first metatarsal on a lateral x-ray of the foot; used to assess pes planus and pes cavus; also called lateral talo-first metatarsal a.



  • Meyer line: a line drawn through the longitudinal axis of the big toe to midpoint of heel during clinical examination; used to assess foot position while walking.



  • parallel pitch lines: two lines drawn on a lateral x-ray of the heel to assess prominence of the posterior superior process of the calcaneus; also called Haglund deformity.



  • plantar fascia: dense fascia of the plantar aspect of foot arising from calcaneus and inserting into base of proximal phalanges; also called plantar aponeurosis.



  • ray: complex of the metatarsals and phalanges that, on anteroposterior radiographs, appear as five rays.



  • sinus tarsi: small channel between the midanterior lateral calcaneus and talus; also called tarsal sinus.



  • talocalcaneal a.: measured between lines drawn along the longitudinal axis of the talus and the plantar cortex of the calcaneus on an AP x-ray of the foot; used to assess talocalcaneal alignment in both pes planovalgus (flatfoot) and pes cavovarus. Also called Kite angle.



  • tarsal tunnel: a fibroosseous tunnel along the medial aspect of the tarsal bones that contains the flexor tendons and the branches of the posterior tibial artery and tibial nerves (while there is an anterior and posterior artery and vein, the tibial nerve is posterior while the peroneal nerve is anterior).



Arteries, Veins, Nerves





  • Baxter n.: first branch of the lateral plantar nerve. It is a motor branch to the abductor digiti quinti muscle.



  • calcaneal branch of the posterior tibial a. and n.: supplies the heel (os calcis, calcaneus).



  • digital a. and n.: terminal arteries and nerves that travel together on the sides of the toes in the interdigital spaces.



  • dorsalis pedis a.: branch from the anterior tibial artery, traversing the dorsum of the foot.



  • malleolar a.: anterior, medial, and lateral branches supply the medial and lateral malleolus.



  • medial and lateral plantar nerves: branches of the tibial nerve. Provide sensation to the medial and lateral portions of the plantar side of foot, respectively, and motor branches to intrinsic muscles of foot.



  • plantar a.: supplies the plantar surface of the foot on medial and lateral side; also called deep branch posterior tibial a.



  • plantar arch: medial plantar artery that transverses the foot to anastomose with lateral plantar artery.



  • posterior tibial artery and vein, tibial nerve: travel through a fascial tunnel on the inner ankle (tarsal tunnel) and branch to supply the plantar aspect of the foot and toes.



Diseases and Conditions of the Foot and Ankle


The pathologic and neuromusculoskeletal changes that take place in the foot can be the result of multiple entities. For example, excessive weight, overuse, improper shoe fit, malalignment, and similar causes can place stress and strain on the feet. Simple effects on the foot can relate to dermal abrasions, blisters, ulcers, fissures, bunions, corns, calluses, fungi, and other infections. The more severe problems involve peripheral vascular (ischemia) diseases, metabolic disorders (diabetes, gout), musculoskeletal changes (bunion and hammer toe deformities), and trauma (fractures, dislocations). All of these may cause or contribute to disability and inability to function. Diseases and conditions of the foot are listed alphabetically for reference. Systemic diseases are listed in Chapter 2 .




  • Achilles tendonitis: dysfunction of the Achilles tendon caused by inflammation of the surrounding tissue (peritendinitis) or degeneration of the tendon tissue itself (tendinosis). Retrocalcaneal bursitis refers to inflammation of the bursal sac between the calcaneus and Achilles tendon.



  • ainhum: a rare condition of unknown cause, seen primarily in African-Americans wherein there is a constricting ring around a digit causing a very slow spontaneous lysis or autoamputation, usually of the fourth or fifth toe, but sometimes other toes; also called dactylolysis spontanea.



  • anonychia: absence of toenails.



  • athlete’s foot: fungal infection of skin on the plantar surface of the feet and between the toes and nails caused by one of the dermatophyte species ( Trichophyton or Epidermophyton ); disease consists of scaling, fissures, maceration, and eroded areas between the toes; also called tinea pedis and dermatomycosis pedis.



  • Baxter’s nerve syndrome: compression of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve by the plantar fascia and is implicated in heel pain syndrome.



  • blue foot syndrome: bluish discoloration of the feet most commonly caused by vascular disturbances.



  • brachymetatarsia: shortened metatarsal, commonly affecting the third and fourth metatarsal in isolation or combination, causes painful plantar callus and elevated digit.



  • bunion: prominence of the first metatarsal head typically related to varying degrees of first metatarsal varus, with lateral deviation (valgus) of the hallux.



  • dorsal bunion: overgrowth of bone (exostosis) on the dorsal surface of the first metatarsal head or a dorsal malpositioning of the first metatarsal head.



  • bunionette: similar to the bunion deformity but affecting the fifth metatarsal, causing the metatarsal head to be prominent laterally; also called tailor’s bunion.



  • bursitis: inflammation of a fluid-filled sac that is normally present around a bony prominence to cushion it.



  • calcaneal spur syndrome: a spur-shaped bony growth at the origin of the flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, and abductor hallucis on the inferior calcaneus. It can cause pain on the bottom of the heel.



  • calcaneus: in terms of alignment, it refers to the dorsiflexed position of the calcaneus, which is the opposite of equinus.



  • callosity: hard, thickened skin on the bottom of the foot like a clavus; also called tyloma, keratoma, callus (pl. calluses).



  • cavo equinus deformity: high arched foot with heel turned inward.



  • cavovarus deformity: high arched inverted foot.



  • Charcot foot: an acquired foot deformity caused by multiple neuropathic fractures most often seen in diabetic patients; also called Charcot arthropathy and neuropathic foot.



  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: in the foot, a spontaneous deterioration of the neuromuscular complex affects the peroneal nerve, causing cavus foot and ankle weakness.



  • checkrein deformity: fixed, flexion deformity of the hallux resulting from tethering of the flexor hallucis longus tendon after a lower limb fracture.



  • Clanton and McGarvey classification: for ankle ligament injury and treatment.



  • clavus: any corn or hyperkeratotic tissue involving a toe; a reaction of skin to intermittent chronic pressure, producing extra layers of hard skin; caused by restrictive footwear or by abnormal position or motion of the toes. A soft clavus is a soft skin thickening between the toes, usually between the fourth and fifth toes; also called soft callus, heloma molle, soft corn, and clavus mollis.



  • clawfoot: clawing of all the toes including the hallux.



  • clawtoes: fixed hyperextension of the metatarsophalangeal joints associated with flexion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, producing a clawlike appearance; also called claw toe deformity.



  • clubfoot: congenital foot deformity resulting in the appearance of a golf club. The components include ankle equinus, varus of the heel, forefoot adduction, and forefoot cavus. The result is that the foot turns inverted with the sole of the foot and the heel pulled medially.



  • coalition: an abnormal fibrous, cartilaginous, or bony bridge between two bones. Most commonly occurs between the calcaneus and navicular (calcaneonavicular) or the talus and calcaneus (talocalcaneal or subtalar). Also called congenital bars.



  • cockup toe deformity: hyperextension great toe proximal phalanx sometimes affecting interphalangeal joint. Associated with a variety of disease conditions.



  • compartment syndrome: elevated pressure in the leg or foot usually resulting from trauma leading to compromised blood flow, damage to muscles and nerves, and dysfunction.



  • congenital rocker-bottom flatfoot: condition present at birth; abnormal equinus position of talus with valgus position of the heel, resulting in a foot that looks like a rocker and has a prominence below the medial ankle; also called congenital vertical talus and congenital convex pes valgus.



  • curly toe: a bilateral congenital deformity in which one or more toes, usually the fourth toe, is supinated, medially deviated, and in plantar flexion.



  • dactylitis: infarcts in the small bones of the foot caused by sickle cell disease.



  • dancer’s fracture: spiral oblique fracture of the fifth metatarsal shaft.



  • diabetic foot disease: general term applied to a variety of foot conditions that are associated with diabetes. This can include ulcers, peripheral vascular changes, peripheral neuropathy, joint destruction, and osteomyelitis.



  • dorsiflexed metatarsal: a metatarsal that is deformed or malpositioned so that its head is higher than the adjacent metatarsal heads, resulting in increased plantar pressure over the adjacent metatarsal heads with limitation of motion of the involved metatarsophalangeal joint.



  • drop foot: paralysis or weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg innervated by the deep peroneal nerve, causing the foot and toes to drag when walking; also called foot drop and peroneal nerve palsy.



  • Dupuytren fibromatosis: plantar fibromas of the plantar fascia of the foot; present as solitary or multiple nodules occurring most often along the medial border of the plantar fascia.



  • Egyptian foot: a foot with a long first ray.



  • equinus: abnormal position of plantar flexion and used in combining form with other words to denote the anatomic location; ankle equinus, forefoot equinus, metatarsus equinus.



  • exertional compartment syndrome: elevated pressure within the leg resulting from exercise that can cause pain, numbness, and limited function, that resolves with rest.



  • exostosis: in children, a bony growth protruding from the surface of bone formed by endochondral ossification. It ceases to grow when growth plate closes; also called osteochondroma and osteocartilaginous exostosis.



  • flail foot: a foot with poor neuromuscular function and control.



  • flatfoot: a foot with a depressed longitudinal arch. This term covers a wide range of conditions. In most cases, a flatfoot is due to imbalances of the muscles and ligaments that control the arch and is referred to as a flexible flatfoot. If musculoskeletal changes occur during adult life or if there is an injury, the term acquired flatfoot might be used. Many individuals with flatfeet go through life with no functional interferences.



  • foot cramps: an involuntary action involving a muscle-tendon reflex contraction, stretching the tendon, which sends nerve messages to the spinal cord, which in turn stimulates the muscle even more, producing a painful cramp. This can be related to abnormal levels of minerals (calcium, potassium, and magnesium), a decrease in blood supply to the muscle, a pinched nerve, holding the foot in pronation for a length of time, or a problem with the muscle itself.



  • forefoot equinus: describes a high-arched foot characterized by excessive plantar flexion of forefoot in relation to hindfoot.



  • forefoot valgus: describes pronated position of forefoot with respect to the hindfoot.



  • forefoot varus: describes supinated position of forefoot with respect to hindfoot.



  • ganglion: a benign soft tissue cystic mass filled with clear fluid, usually coming from a joint or a tendon sheath, usually in the midfoot or hindfoot.



  • gastrocnemius equinus: a tightness or contracture of the gastrocnemius muscle that restricts ankle dorsiflexion when the knee is fully extended; also called Silverskold test.



  • gout: a metabolic disorder wherein deposits of uric acid crystals form in the joints, the kidneys, and especially the great toe, causing pain and inflammation. Aspiration of joint fluid can help differentiate gout from an infection.



  • Greek foot: a foot with a short first ray.



  • Haglund deformity: prominent posterosuperior aspect of the calcaneus; also called retrocalcaneal exostosis or a “pump bump.”



  • Haglund syndrome: pain on the superior and lateral side of the heel usually associated with a callus of the skin, bony prominence (Haglund deformity), and retrocalcaneal bursitis. A variety of conditions and shoe types can contribute to this condition; also called retrocalcaneal exostosis.



  • hallux abductus: great toe pointing toward second toe (transverse plane deformity).



  • hallux adductus: great toe pointing toward midline of body (transverse plane deformity).



  • hallux elevatus: fixed dorsiflexed position of entire first ray.



  • hallux extensus: fixed dorsiflexed position of the great toe.



  • hallux flexus: fixed flexion position of great toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint.



  • hallux malleus: hammer toe deformity of the great toe; fixed flexion position of great toe at the interphalangeal joint.



  • hallux rigidus: painful, stiff metatarsophalangeal joint; caused by arthritic changes.



  • hallux valgus: great toe pointing toward second toe, often rotated in frontal plane so that the nail plate is facing away from second toe.



  • hallux valgus interphalangeus: a hallux valgus deformity caused by deformity of the proximal or distal phalanx.



  • hallux varus: great toe pointing toward midline of body, often rotated in frontal plane so that the nail plate is facing second toe.



  • hammer toes: combined distal interphalangeal extension, proximal interphalangeal flexion, and metatarsophalangeal extension deformity of one or more lesser toes.



  • hard corn: a particularly hard, thickened area of skin over the dorsum of the toe; also called heloma durum, clavus durum, and hard clavus.



  • heel pain syndrome: a common orthopaedic problem of the foot characterized by plantar fascial inflammation, entrapment neuropathy, heel spur, or a painful heel pad caused by excessive loading on heel strike; also called heel spur syndrome, plantar fasciitis, and calcodynia.



  • heel spur: osteophyte that protrudes from the plantar or posterior aspect of the calcaneus causing pain; also called calcaneal spur.



  • hindfoot equinus: characterized by plantar flexion of the calcaneus with a decrease of calcaneal inclination angle (low-arched, flatfoot, rocker-bottom foot).



  • ingrown nail: condition of the nail growing into the skin distally; also called unguis incarnatus and onychocryptosis.



  • intractable plantar keratosis (IPK): well-defined callous tissue with a central core located beneath a metatarsal head and usually the result of abnormal plantar pressure over a bony prominence.



  • Jones Fracture: fracture at the base of the fifth metatarsal at the metadiaphyseal junction.



  • lobster foot: congenital cleft secondary to the lack of the central three rays and middle and lateral cuneiforms producing a lobster claw appearance.



  • macrodactyly: enlargement of a toe or toes.



  • Madura foot: a severe deep fungal infection of the foot.



  • mallet toes: fixed flexion of the distal interphalangeal joint of the second to fifth toes, such that the toenails are pointing into the ground when walking.



  • malum deformans: a deep foot ulcer commonly associated with diabetes mellitus or other neuropathic conditions.



  • march fracture: stress fracture at the base of the second metatarsal typically seen in military recruits.



  • metatarsal cuneiform exostosis: an overgrowth of bone usually involving the dorsal surface of the first metatarsal base and the medial cuneiform. Also referred to as a metatarsal boss.



  • metatarsalgia: pain in the plantar aspect of the metatarsal head area caused by a variety of disorders. Transfer metatarsalgia implies increased stress and pain on a given metatarsal secondary to the diminished weight bearing role of an adjacent metatarsal.



  • metatarsus abductus: turning out of the forefoot (metatarsals); also called m. valgus.



  • metatarsus adductocavus: forefoot turned inward in association with a high arch, usually seen in clubfoot deformity that includes heel varus (talipes equinovarus).



  • metatarsus adductus: turning in of the forefoot (metatarsals); also called m. varus.



  • metatarsus atavicus: abnormal shortness of the first metatarsal bone.



  • metatarsus equinus: global cavus of the midfoot with hyperplantarflexed metatarsals relative to the cuneiforms and cuboid.



  • metatarsus latus: broad foot caused by spreading of the metatarsals; widened forefoot, splay foot.



  • metatarsus primus elevatus: the first ray is dorsiflexed relative to the lessor rays.



  • metatarsus primus varus: refers to medial deviation of the first metatarsal with splaying between first and second metatarsals; can be the cause of a bunion deformity.



  • Morton foot: short first metatarsal and long second metatarsal that causes changes in the weight-bearing pattern of the foot. Also called Morton toe.



  • Morton neuroma: nerve compression syndrome of the interdigital nerve that most commonly occurs in the third web space; also called interdigital neuroma.



  • Morton syndrome: short, hypermobile first ray resulting in increased plantar pressure at second metatarsal and subsequent pain (transfer metatarsalgia)



  • neuropathic fracture: fracture or fractures secondary to loss of protective sensation; also called Charcot fracture.



  • nonplantigrade foot: foot alignment with a portion of the weight-bearing sole not in alignment with the floor.



  • onychauxis: overgrowth and thickening of a nail plate with fragmentation and discoloration of the nail, most frequently the great toenail; also called onychogryphosis.



  • onychocryptosis: condition of nail growing into the skin distally; also called ingrown nail and unguis incarnatus.



  • onychomycosis: fungal infection of the nail plate.



  • osteochondrosis: bone and cartilage disorder believed to be due to disruption of the blood supply to a growth center of a bone. These have been given eponyms after the persons who first reported them:




    • Köhler disease: osteochondrosis of the navicular bone



    • Freiberg infraction: osteochondrosis of the metatarsal head, typically the second.



    • Sever disease: osteochondrosis of the calcaneus apophysis; also referred to as a traction apophysistis secondary to the pull of the Achilles tendon.




  • overlapping toe: a toe that overlaps an adjacent toe; commonly affecting the second toe, which overlaps the great toe.



  • pachyonychia: extreme thickening of the toenails; usually congenital, the nails are more solid and regular than in onychogryphosis.



  • paronychia: an inflammation of the soft tissues around the nail plate, secondary to infection or trauma.



  • peroneal spastic flatfoot: flatfoot deformity associated with spasm of the peroneal muscles.



  • Persian slipper foot: the clinical appearance of the paralytic form of vertical talus in which the lateral column of the foot has an abducted plantar contour and the medial longitudinal column is elongated and convex. The lateral toes are elevated and clawed, which is the basis for the term.



  • pes: generally speaking, the term pes (foot) is used as a prefix to denote an acquired deformity of the foot; the terms pes and talipes are generally interchangeable.




    • pes cavus: high arches in midfoot.



    • pes planus: lowering of the longitudinal arch; flatfoot. There are two basic categories:




      • flexible pes planus: flatfoot with general laxity in which the foot appears normal when not bearing weight but flattens with weight-bearing.



      • rigid pes planus: nonflexible flatfoot that is present whether bearing weight or not.





  • pigeon toe: term that is often applied to any intoeing gait.



  • plantar fasciitis: inflammation in a band of tissue that runs from the heel to the bones in the ball of the foot that makes walking quite painful; may be caused by improper shoe fit, excess weight, uneven terrain, and Achilles tendon tightening. Nodule may form called plantar fibroma .



  • plantar flexed metatarsal: a metatarsal that is malpositioned so that its head is lower than the adjacent metatarsal heads.



  • plantar plate: condensation of the metatarsophalangeal joint capsule and plantar aponeurosis providing for joint stability. Rupture of this structure can lead to a cock-up toe deformity.



  • plantar wart: an epidermal growth affecting the plantar surface of the foot caused by a papillomavirus; also called verruca vulgaris.



  • plantigrade foot: foot alignment with the weight-bearing sole in alignment with the floor.



  • podagra: although it literally means “pain in the foot,” this term is usually used for a painful attack of gout in the great toe.



  • polydactyly: congenital deformity resulting in extra digits of the toes. It can be preaxial involving the hallux, central, and postaxial involving the fifth toe.



  • polysyndactyly: condition in which more than two toes are joined together.



  • posterior tibial tendon insufficiency: weakness, degeneration, or rupture of the posterior tibial tendon associated with acquired flatfoot.



  • prehallux: accessory navicular; also called os tibiale externum.



  • pronation: a combination of motions, including forefoot abduction, eversion of the subtalar joint, and dorsiflexion, that produces a relaxing of the arch for heel strike.



  • pseudo Jones fracture: fracture involving the fifth metatarsal styloid process.



  • pump bumps: a thickening of skin forming a callus in the back of the heel above the calcaneus as a result of tight-fitting shoes and a Haglund deformity.



  • rheumatoid nodule: synovial mass associated with rheumatoid arthritis, which can form on the weight-bearing surface of the foot.



  • rocker-bottom foot: deformity of the foot such that the arch is disrupted and resembles a rocking chair rocker bottom.



  • sand toe: injury caused by hyperplanterflexion of the hallux.



  • sinus tarsi syndrome: inflammation of tissues in the canal between talus and calcaneus causing lateral foot pain with walking.



  • skew foot: a complex deformity involving adduction and supination of the forefoot (metatarsus adductovarus) and hindfoot valgus; also called z-foot or serpentine foot.



  • splay foot: abnormally wide forefoot caused by severe equinus and indicated by an abnormally wide intermetatarsal angle.



  • squatter’s talus: a dorsal articular facet on the talar neck found in cultures that are accustomed to squatting.



  • stiff ray: immobility of all joints of any toe or toes.



  • stress fracture: fracture caused by repetitive stress commonly seen in athletes and military recruits.



  • subungual exostosis: a benign osteocartilaginous spur that grows from the distal phalanx under the nail bed.



  • supination: a combination of motions including adduction and inversion of the foot that produces a stiffening of the arch for push-off. This motion is normal during gait; however, excessive supination can lead to pathologic changes of the foot such as stiff cavus foot.



  • syndactyly: congenital anomaly of the foot (or hand) marked by a complete webbing between the toes; may involve two or more toes; may contain bone or merely soft tissue.



  • tailor’s bunion: a pronounced prominence on lateral side of fifth metatarsal head. The term is derived from the historical cross-legged sitting behavior of tailors.



  • talipes: generally speaking, the term talipes, meaning ankle and foot, is used as a prefix to denote an affection of the foot, for example, talipes equinovarus (clubfoot).




    • talipes calcaneocavus: high-arched foot with fixed dorsiflexion; also called pes c.



    • talipes calcaneus: abnormally dorsiflexed hindfoot, with increased dorsiflexion of the calcaneus; also called cavus foot and pes c.



    • talipes calcaneovalgus: abnormally dorsiflexed hindfoot with turning out of the heel; also called pes c.



    • talipes calcaneovarus: abnormally dorsiflexed hindfoot with turning in of the heel; also called pes c.



    • talipes cavovalgus: high arch and turning out of the heel; also called pes c.



    • talipes cavovarus: high arch associated with turning in of the foot; also called pes c.



    • talipes equinovalgus: plantar flexion and turning out of the calcaneus; also called pes e.



    • talipes equinovarus: turning of the heel inward with increased plantar flexion. More precisely, a clubfoot, often having the components of talipes equinovarus with metatarsus adductus; also called clubfoot and pes e.



    • talipes planovalgus: depression of the longitudinal arch associated with heel valgus; also called pes planovalgus.



    • talipes planus: depression of the longitudinal arch; no specified heel valgus is implied by this term; also called pes planus and flatfoot. A flexible pes planus is flatfoot with general laxity but no other specific disease process.




  • tarsal tunnel syndrome: entrapment of tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel deep to the flexor retinaculum (laciniate ligament).



  • turf toe: injury caused by hyperdorsiflexion of the hallux.



  • ulcer: a breakdown in the skin secondary to neuropathic or ischemic conditions; also called neuropathic u. and ischemic u.




    • There are two classification systems for ulcers:




  • vertical talus: a spectrum of conditions in which the talus is oriented in a plantar-flexed and medially directed position resulting in a flatfoot with heel valgus and a rocker-bottom or convex sole. In the more severe congenital form, congenital rigid flatfoot, it is usually associated with a neurologic disorder such as arthrogryposis or myelomeningocele; also called congenital convex pes valgus.



Surgery and Non-Surgical Procedures


Descriptions of Procedures


The method of electronic record-keeping has changed over time. Clinicians prefer describing procedures using anatomic terms. However, there is a wide variation in techniques using eponymic terms to describe procedures. They are listed here because they are still found in medical reports.




  • Abraham and Pankovich p.: direct repair of neglected ruptures of Achilles tendon



  • Akin p.: for hallux valgus or deformed great toe; an osteotomy of the proximal phalanx of the great toe.



  • Aly p.: correction of valgus malunion of extraarticular calcaneal fracture.



  • Anderson p.: for lateral ankle instability, use of plantaris tendon for lateral ligament reconstruction.



  • Anderson and Fowler p.: for pes planus; an opening wedge osteotomy of the distal lateral calcaneus with tibial bone graft, closing wedge osteotomy of the medial cuneiform, and capsulotomy of the talonavicular joint.



  • arthrodesis: fusion of adjacent joints in order to relieve pain, restore alignment, and enhance function.



  • arthroereisis: realignment of a joint by limiting certain movements or positions. Most commonly used in the treatment of pediatric painful flexible flatfoot deformity.



  • arthroplasty: any type of procedure to reconstruct a joint, typically in the setting of degenerative or inflammatory arthritis.



  • Austin p.: for hallux valgus; an osteotomy in the form of a chevron or V cut made in the distal aspect of the first metatarsal; also called chevron procedure.



  • avulsion of nail plate: a nonpermanent removal of the nail plate, either partial or complete, without disrupting the matrix cells that produce the nail plate.



  • Baker p.: for Achilles tendon tightness; relaxation of proximal tendon with a rectangular sliding slot incision.



  • Banks p.: for nonunion medial malleolus; resection of nonunion, addition of locally obtained tibial cancellous bone, and screw fixation.



  • Barr p.: for paralytic clubfoot; transfer of the posterior tibial tendon to the third cuneiform or metatarsal.



  • Barrett p.: for plantar fasciitis, endoscopic plantar fasciotomy.



  • Benirschke and Sangeorzan p.: open reduction of calcaneal fracture.



  • Berkowitz p.: salvage of failed total ankle arthroplasty.



  • Berman and Gartland p.: for metatarsus adductus; dome-shaped osteotomy of all five proximal metatarsals.



  • border ray amputation: to improve function in foot deformity, resection of deformed or adjacent ray to improve function.



  • Bosworth p.: for repair of old rupture of Achilles tendon; fashioning direct tendon graft from median raphe (central portion of tendon).



  • Boyd amputation: an amputation at the ankle with tibial calcaneal fusion.



  • Braly et al. p.: lateral decompression of malunited calcaneal fracture.



  • Bridle p.: for foot paralysis; posterior tibialis tendon transfer through interosseous membrane to dorsum of foot, and dual anastomosis to anterior tibialis and anteriorly transposed peroneus longus.



  • Broström p.: anatomic repair of lateral collateral ligaments for chronic lateral ankle.



  • Broughton p.: a method of tibial diaphyseal shortening instability; the Gould modification incorporates the extensor retinaculum with the repair.



  • bunionectomy: for simple bunion or bunion associated with hallux valgus; a general class of many different operations that are designed to correct bunion deformity.



  • Butler p.: arthroplasty of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint.



  • Carr p.: subtalar distraction bone block arthrodesis; distraction arthrodesis for calcaneal malunion.



  • Carstam and Eiken p.: opening-wedge osteotomy of distal phalanx.



  • Carstam and Theander p.: a reverse wedge osteotomy of the distal phalanx.



  • Carter and Ezaki p.: dome osteotomy and excision of Vickers ligament.



  • Ceroni p.: for open reduction and internal fixation of cuboid fracture.



  • Chao p.: dorsal closing wedge osteotomy for Freiberg disease.



  • cheilectomy: for hallux rigidus; removal of an exostosis usually on the dorsal surface of the distal first metatarsal.



  • chevron osteotomy: for hallux valgus; an osteotomy in the form of a chevron or V cut made in the distal first metatarsal; also called Austin p.



  • Childress p.: for stabilization of unstable tibial, tarsal, calcaneal fractures using single transarticular Steinman pin.



  • Chopart amputation: of the forefoot through the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joint.



  • Chrisman-Snook p.: reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments using peroneus brevis tendon; also called modified Elmslie procedure.



  • Cincinnati incision: an incision to correct clubfoot.



  • Clare p.: correction of calcaneal malunion through extensile lateral approach.



  • Clayton p.: for deformity of toes in rheumatoid arthritis; resection of proximal phalanx and entire metatarsal heads of all toes.



  • closing abductory wedge osteotomy (CAWO): for hallux valgus; proximal metatarsal laterally based closing wedge osteotomy to bring first metatarsal closer to second metatarsal.



  • Coetzee p.: a lateral ankle ligament reconstruction including surgical tape.



  • Cohen o.: medial malleolar osteotomy to provide ankle exposure.



  • Cole p.: for cavus foot deformity; an anterior tarsal wedge osteotomy with fusion.



  • Coleman p.: for talipes valgus; soft tissue and tendon release associated with a subtalar fusion.



  • condylectomy: for painful callus; removal of a condyle from a metatarsal or phalanx.



  • Copper and Coughlin p.: subcapital oblique osteotomy for bunionette deformity.



  • Corless p.: for bunion deformity distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy.



  • cotting: for ingrown nail; excision of a nail.



  • Coughlin p.: applied to four foot procedures: first cuneiform osteotomy, medial cuneiform osteotomy, oblique diaphyseal osteotomy of fifth metatarsal for severe splay foot, and metatarsus quintus valgus.



  • Crawford p.: uses Cincinnati incision for clubfoot.



  • crescentic osteotomy: for hallux valgus; a dome-shaped or crescentic osteotomy at the base of the first metatarsal to reduce the metatarsus primus varus.



  • cup and cone arthrodesis: for fusion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint; the metatarsal head is shaped into a cone, and a matching, concave cone is cut into the proximal phalanx at a proper angle to accept the metatarsal head for fusion; also called Wilson p. and Johnson and Barington p.



  • cylindrical osteotomy: to shorten long bones; removal of a cylinder of bone.



  • Deland p.: deltoid ligament reconstruction with peroneus longus tendon autograft.



  • Dennyson and Fulford p.: for hindfoot valgus deformity, subtalar arthrodesis.



  • digital prosthesis: excision of interphalangeal joint with insertion of prosthetic device in that space.



  • Dillwyn-Evans p.: for severe resistant clubfoot deformity; Achilles and posterior tibial tendon, talonavicular joint capsulectomy, and fusion of the calcaneocuboid joint.



  • distal interphalangeal (DIP) fusion: for mallet toes; removal of the DIP joint and then fusion.



  • dorsal-V osteotomy: for plantar callosity; an osteotomy at the neck of a lesser metatarsal to allow the metatarsal to assume a slightly higher position.



  • dorsal wedge osteotomy: for plantar callosity; a dorsally based closing wedge osteotomy at the base of a metatarsal to allow the metatarsal to move to a higher position.



  • Drennan p.: for ankle flexion weakness; posterior transfer of anterior tibial tendon.



  • DuVries arthroplasty: for fixed hammer toes and mallet toes; resection of the head of the proximal phalanx (hammer toe) or middle phalanx (mallet toe).



  • DuVries plantar condylectomy: for plantar callosities; resection of plantar condyles from the lesser metatarsals.



  • Dwyer p.: lateral closing wedge osteotomy of the calcaneus; associated with soft tissue release for clubfeet and other disorders.



  • Ellis p.: correction of multiplanar deformity of second toe with metatarsophalangeal release and extensor brevis reconstruction.



  • Essex-Lopresti p.: tongue type fracture of the calcaneus; use of a Steinmann pin or other metal pin to help achieve and hold fracture reduction.



  • Evans p.: (1) for lateral collateral ligament instability of ankle; use of peroneus brevis tendon; (2) for severe flatfoot deformity; distal lateral opening wedge osteotomy of the calcaneus.



  • exostectomy: removal of any excess prominences of bone.



  • Eylon p.: tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with thin-wire external fixation.



  • Eyring and Guthrie p.: lateral repair of chronic ankle instability.



  • Farmer p.: for hallux varus; soft tissue repair with the use of a skin flap.



  • Fowler p.: (1) for metatarsus varus with severe cavus deformity; plantar fascia and muscle release associated with an opening wedge osteotomy of the first cuneiform; (2) for deformity of toes in rheumatoid arthritis; resection of proximal phalanx and varying portions of metatarsal heads of all toes; (3) for ingrown toenail; excision of entire nail.



  • French method: for treatment of clubfoot in infants requires daily physical therapy for the first 2 months with daily manipulations and stretching of the feet followed by taping. Therapy can be weaned down to three times per week with parents continuing night splinting.



  • Gaenslen split-heel p.: a split incision approach for osteomyelitis of the calcaneus.



  • Gallie p.: for malunion calcaneus; subtalar arthrodesis using a tibial bone graft.



  • Girdlestone-Taylor p.: for flexible hammer toe deformities; transfer of the long flexors of the involved toe(s) to the extensor hood mechanism (top of toe).



  • Gould p.: for pes cavus caused by tight plantar fascia; a double plantar fasciotomy through a lateral heel approach proximally and a distal medial approach.



  • Greene p.: one-stage release of circumferential constricting band; open ankle synovectomy in hemophilia; posterior tibial tendon transfer to dorsum of foot.



  • Greisberg p.: to improve alignment in adult-acquired flatfoot, isolated medial column arthrodesis.



  • Grice-Green p.: (1) for talipes valgus; tibial bone graft to subtalar joint; (2) for paralysis of gastrocsoleus; transfer of peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and posterior tibial tendon.



  • Haddad p.: use of extensor digitorum brevis transfer for crossover toe deformity.



  • Hamilton p.: for entrapment flexor hallucis longus, release of fibroosseous tunnel. Also, a repair procedure for lateral ankle instability.



  • hemiphalangectomy: for shortening or straightening of a toe; resection of a portion of the phalanx.



  • Herndon-Heyman p.: for congenital talipes valgus; medial and lateral foot release with tendon lengthening.



  • Hibbs p.: for claw toes and cavus feet; plantar fascia release with transfer of the extensor digitorum longus to the third cuneiform.



  • Hirose and Johnson p.: for correction of compensatory forefoot varus in a flatfoot deformity; an opening-wedge medial cuneiform osteotomy.



  • Hoffman-Clayton p.: resection of metatarsal head; resection of metatarsal heads and bases of proximal phalanges for cock-up deformities of toes as seen in rheumatoid arthritis.



  • Hoke p.: (1) triple arthrodesis done with reshaping of the head of the talus; (2) for flat feet; navicular bone and two medial cuneiforms are fused.



  • Horst and Nunley p.: for excision of glomus tumor foot.



  • intermediate phalangectomy: for hammer toe deformity; excision of the middle phalanx.



  • Jahss p.: for cavus foot with clawtoes; excision of metatarsotarsal joint with dorsal wedge closed to reduce cavus and with adequate bone excision to relax plantar fascia.



  • Japas p.: for high-arched feet; a combination of plantar fascia release and dorsal wedge osteotomy of the tarsal bones.



  • Johnson and Spiegl p.: for hallux varus; fusion of interphalangeal joint great toe and transfer of extensor hallucis longus to lateral proximal phalanx.



  • Jones p.: (1) for cock-up deformity of great toe; transfer of the extensor hallucis longus to the distal first metatarsal; currently done with a distal interphalangeal joint fusion; (2) for ankle instability; repair of the fibular collateral ligament using the peroneus brevis muscle.



  • Juliano p.: for hallux varus; extensor hallucis brevis tenodesis.



  • Karlsson p.: for lateral ankle ligament instability; reconstruction using original ligament; also called Brostrum procedure.



  • Kashiwagi p.: for malunion calcaneus fracture; lateral subtalar and calcaneocuboid joint fusion.



  • Kavanaugh p.: for proximal fifth metatarsal fracture, internal fixation with intramedullary screw.



  • Keller p.: for hallux rigidus or hallux valgus; resection of the base of the proximal phalanx of the great toe.



  • Kessel-Bonney p.: for lack of great toe extension; a closing wedge osteotomy of proximal phalanx. Also called Moberg p.



  • Kidner p.: for an accessory navicular bone; removal of the accessory navicular bone with or without transfer of the posterior tibial tendon under the navicular bone.



  • Kilmartin and O’Kane p.: for correction of axial deformity, closing wedge osteotomy of proximal phalanx.



  • Klinge p.: for prominence of distal metatarsal, an oblique modified Weil osteotomy .



  • Krackow p.: for Achilles tendon rupture, open repair with a locked looping Krackow stitch .



  • Kumar p.: arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.



  • Lambrinudi p.: a triple arthrodesis done by resection of the head and inferior portion of the talus.



  • Lapidus p.: for hallux valgus; arthrodesis of the first metatarsocuneiform joint and a distal soft tissue procedure.



  • Lichtblau osteotomy: for persistent clubfoot deformity in adults; medial soft tissue release, closing wedge osteotomy of the cuboid, and opening wedge osteotomy of the medial cuneiform.



  • Liebolt p.: for paralytic equinus foot; a two-stage procedure involving a Hoke triple arthrodesis followed by an ankle fusion.



  • Lindholm p.: for repair of ruptured Achilles tendon; fashioning of fascial flaps from superior tendon.



  • Lisfranc amputation: amputation through the tarsometatarsal joint.



  • Lloyd-Roberts p.: for clubfoot deformity in early childhood; soft tissue release.



  • Ludloff p.: for hallux valgus; an oblique osteotomy of the first metatarsal from proximal dorsal to distal plantar.



  • Lynn p.: for repair of Achilles tendon rupture; use of fanned out portion of plantaris tendon to cover direct repair.



  • Ma-Griffith p.: for Achilles tendon rupture; percutaneous technique of suture repair.



  • Maffulli p.: for neglected ruptures of the Achilles tendon, peroneus brevis tendon transfer.



  • malleolar osteotomy: a procedure or approach that provides access to the ankle joint in fracture reductions or in excising abnormal bone or cartilage.



  • Mankey and Mann.: arthrodesis of first metatarsophalangeal joint with small plate fixation.



  • Mann p.: for hallux valgus; a modified McBride bunion procedure with a vertical medial capsular imbrication and suturing of lateral capsule to second metatarsal head; also called DuVries p.



  • matricectomy: for toenail deformity or chronic disease; excision of all or a part of the nail plate and its germinal matrix to eliminate growth of the nail.



  • Mau p.: for hallux valgus; an oblique osteotomy of the first metatarsal from proximal plantar to distal dorsal.



  • Mayo p.: (1) for bunion exostosis of first metatarsal head without significant angular deformity; excision exostosis; (2) for first metatarsophalangeal joint arthritis; oblique excision of the first metatarsal head.



  • McBride p.: for hallux valgus; excision of the medial exostosis, medial capsular reefing, fibular sesamoidectomy, and transfer of the adductor hallucis tendon into the distal first metatarsal.



  • McHale and Lenhart p.: for residual bean-shaped clubfoot deformity double osteotomy.



  • McKeever p.: for hallux valgus or rigidus; fusion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint; also called McKeever arthrodesis.



  • metaphyseal osteotomy: osteotomy through the neck or base of the metatarsal.



  • metatarsal head resection with prosthesis: removal of the metatarsal head to create an artificial joint with a silastic implant.



  • Miller p.: (1) for severe flatfoot deformity; naviculo-cuneiform-metatarsal fusion; (2) for hallux varus; repositioning of stump of adductor hallucis and transfer of abductor hallucis to lateral proximal phalanx.



  • Mitchell p.: for hallux valgus; a distal metatarsal osteotomy with a step cut and shifting of the metatarsal head laterally with excision of exostosis and medial capsular reefing.



  • Mitchell and Baxter p.: combination of chevron-Akin double osteotomy.



  • Mogensen p.: for ingrown toenail, partial nail fold, and nail matrix removal.



  • Mubarak and Van Valin p.: for congenital or acquired foot deformities, selective joint-sparing osteotomies.



  • Myerson p.: a mix of procedures for combined peroneus tendonopathies,



  • Myerson and Komenda p.: for hallucis varus, extensor hallucis brevis tenodesis.



  • Ober p.: for paralytic clubfeet; a method of transfer of the posterior tibial tendon to the third cuneiform or metatarsal.



  • onychotomy: incision into the nail bed.



  • opening wedge osteotomy: a cut through bone followed by distracting the bone on one side to “open” the cut. Used for changing the angle of a bone.



  • osteotripsy: for callosities; may be any percutaneous reduction of a bony prominence.



  • panmetatarsal head resection: usually for severe arthritic deformity; resection of all of the metatarsal heads.



  • pantalar fusion: for instability of the hindfoot; fusion of the tibiotalar, subtalar, calcaneocuboid, and talonavicular joints.



  • partial ostectomy: to relieve pressure on the skin; removal of bony prominence.



  • Persichetti p.: for chronic ingrown toenail, nail fold removal, or reduction.



  • Peterson and Newman p.: for severe juvenile hallux valgus, double first metatarsal osteotomy.



  • Pfeffer p.: for exostosis in hallux rigidus, cheilectomy.



  • phenolization: for nail deformity in which a permanent elimination of a part or all of nail plate is desired. Phenol is applied to the nail matrix after the nail plate is removed to destroy any further nail growth.



  • Pirogoff a.: for either diabetic complication or trauma, amputation at hindfoot and ankle with attachment of calcaneal left at lower end of the stump.



  • Ponsetti method: for treatment of club foot includes serial casting together with manipulation and Achilles tendon tenotomy followed by bracing.



  • proximal interphalangeal (PIP) fusion: operation commonly done for clawtoes or hammer toes; removal of the proximal interphalangeal joint and then fusion.



  • proximal metatarsal opening wedge osteotomy (PMOW): for hallux valgus; osteotomy of the first metatarsal base with use of bone graft to open the wedge and bring the first metatarsal closer to the second.



  • Quenu p.: for ingrown toenail; excision of nail bed germinal matrix through skin flap incision, leaving distal nail intact. Also called Fowler p. and Zadik p.



  • Riedl p.: a method of medial cuneiform osteotomy.



  • Ruiz-Mora p.: proximal phalangectomy of the fifth toe for cock-up (or curly toe) deformity.



  • Samilson p.: for calcaneocavus foot; a crescentic osteotomy of the calcaneus.



  • Sammarco p.: for anterior tibialis tear or degeneration, reconstruction with autogenous tendon graft.



  • Sammarco and DiRaimondo p.: for lateral ankle instability, tendon transfers.



  • Sangeorzan and Hansen p.: for hallux valgus, arthrodesis of first metatarsocuneiform articulation.



  • Saxby and Myerson p.: for flexible pes planus deformity, triplane osteotomy, and lateral ligament reconstruction.



  • Saxena p.: for plantar faciitis, single-portal endoscopic plantar fascia release.



  • scarf p.: for hallux valgus; a Z-shaped midshaft osteotomy to correct metatarsus primus varus.



  • Schon p.: for Baxter nerve (first branch lateral plantar nerve), plantar fascia, and nerve release.



  • shock wave therapy: the use of either low-energy or high-energy shock waves, like those used to break up kidney stones, to treat chronic inflammatory conditions of the Achilles tendon or plantar fascia.



  • Silver p.: excision of medial first metatarsal exostosis with lateral capsular release and medial capsular imbrication.



  • Smith and Kuo p.: for dorsal bunion residual club foot, first metatarsal osteotomy, and anterior tendon transfer.



  • Snow p.: for chronic lateral ankle instability a modification of the Broström p.



  • Sobel and Bohne p.: for degeneration and other tendon abnormalities such as ossicle, peroneal tendon repair-reconstruction.



  • Sorensen p.: arthrodesis of first metatarsocuneiform articulation.



  • Steindler p.: plantar release of the proximal muscles and fascia of the foot for high-arched feet.



  • step down osteotomy: for abnormally long lesser metatarsal; an osteotomy to shorten and the bone.



  • Strayer p.: for tight heel cord; gastrocnemius lengthening leaving soleus intact.



  • subtalar arthrodesis: for arthritis and other conditions of the talocalcaneal joint; fusion of the talus to the calcaneus.



  • subtalar arthroereisis: for severe flatfoot with calcaneal valgus; insertion of a metallic or ceramic spacer into the subtalar joint.



  • Syme amputation: an ankle disarticulation with preservation of the heel pad for weight-bearing.



  • syndactylization: a soft tissue procedure in which two adjacent toes are intentionally joined together.



  • talectomy: excision of the talus for severe soft tissue contractures.



  • tendon Achilles lengthening (TAL): a variety of procedures used to lengthen a tight or spastic Achilles tendon.



  • Teuffer p.: direct repair of neglected ruptures of Achilles tendon.



  • Thomas and Smith p.: for hallux rigids. extension osteotomy of proximal phalanx.



  • Thompson p.: for chronic lateral ankle instability, a modified Broström repair.



  • Toby for p.: for congenital aphalangia, extraperiosteal toe phalanx transplantation.



  • transmetatarsal amputation: an amputation through the midportion of the metatarsals.



  • triple arthrodesis: for arthritis or unstable deformity of the hindfoot. Comprises fusion of the calcaneus to the cuboid, navicular to the talus, and talus to the calcaneus.



  • Tsuge p.: ray reduction for macrodactyly of toes; debulking for macrodactyly.



  • Vulpius-Compere p.: for Achilles tendon tightness; proximal inverted V-shaped lengthening.



  • V-Y Achilles lengthening: conversion of a V-shaped incision in the gastrosoleus fascia to a Y allowing for lengthening of the Achilles.



  • V-Y plasty: for clawtoes; transection of skin in V-shaped incision with closure in the shape of a Y.



  • Wapner p.: direct repair of neglected ruptures of Achilles tendon.



  • Watson-Cheyne p.: for ingrown toenail; excision of vertical wedge avoiding bone; also called Burghard p., O’Donoghue p., and Mongensen p.



  • Watson-Jones p.: for lateral ankle instability; use of peroneus brevis tendon in reconstruction of lateral ligament.



  • Weil p.: for an unstable lesser metatarsophalangeal joint or for a plantar callosity or metatarsalgia caused by a long metatarsal; a distal oblique metatarsal shortening osteotomy.



  • Westin p.: for paralytic talipes calcaneus; a tenodesis of the Achilles tendon to the fibula.



  • White and Kraynick p.: direct repair of neglected ruptures of Achilles tendon.



  • White slide p.: for Achilles tendon tightening in spastic hemiplegia; anterior fibers of the Achilles tendon are cut distally, and medial fibers are cut proximally. The foot is then dorsiflexed, producing the slide.



  • Wiltse p.: for ankle deformities, varus supramalleolar osteotomy.



  • Wilson p.: for hallux valgus; an oblique osteotomy of the first metatarsal neck area.



  • Winograd p.: for an ingrown nail; excision of an ingrown portion of toenail, with curettage of the nail bed.



  • Wolf p.: for plantar callosity; proximal shortening of the metatarsal.



  • Zadik p.: for ingrown nail; excision of the entire nail.



  • Z- lengthening: a z-shaped step cut in a tendon allowing for lengthening.



  • Z-plasty: for tight heel cord; complete Z-shaped cut and repair in a lengthened position.



  • Zoellner and Clancy p.: for displaced peroneal tendon, fibular groove deepening with tissue transfer.



Ankle Prostheses


The forces acting on the ankle are complex, yet by design, ankle arthroplasty designs have traditionally been monoplanar. However, new implant designs have offered more anatomic alternatives in an attempt to enhance function and outcomes. Total ankle replacement has become a reliable and reproducible option in appropriately selected patients. Complications like subsidence, loosening, fracture, and premature failure, although not eliminated, have become much less common.


Ankle and Foot Approaches





  • anterior a.: for tendon repairs, transfers, and some ankle fusions; also called Kochler a. (I did not find any reference to the kochler approach, the kocher approach is a lateral approach and not anterior)and Ollier a. (not an anterior approach, it is an oblique lateral incision anterior to the fibula)



  • Bassett et al. a.: approach to posteromedial ankle through posterior tibial tendon sheath.



  • Campbell a.: a posterior approach for ankle arthrodesis; a posterior lateral approach to the elbow.



  • Cincinnati a.: incision for clubfoot.



  • Henry a.: direct lateral approach to the fibula.



  • Kocher a.: curved L to calcaneus; lateral to tarsus and ankle.



  • lateral and posterolateral a.: for repair of fractures, ligamentous injuries, and some tendon transfers; also called Kocher a. and Gatellier and Chastang a.



  • medial and posteromedial a.: for ankle fractures, tendon transfers, and correction of clubfeet; also called Broomhead a., Colonna and Ralston a., Garceau a., and Koenig and Schaefer a.



  • ollier a.: oblique incision beginning at the talonavicular joint coursing plantarly ending distal to the fibula.



  • Saltzman a.: anterolateral approach to dome of talus.



  • Tochigi a.: extensive anterolateral approach.




Dec 24, 2021 | Posted by in ORTHOPEDIC | Comments Off on The Foot and Ankle
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