Glossary



Glossary






GLOSSARY


Adactyly


Congenital absence of a digit.


Albright syndrome


A polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with an associated endocrine abnormality. Clinical signs include café au lait spots and precocious puberty.


Allodynia


Pain produced by a non-noxious stimulus.


Anesthesia


Loss of sensation.


Amniotic bands (Streeter bands)


A partial or complete ring-like constriction around one of the limbs of the fetus during development caused by early rupture of the amnion, with the chorion remaining intact.


Anatomical neck


Thinnest part of the metatarsal where the shaft meets the head, located proximal to the surgical head.


Arthrocentesis


Aspiration of a joint.


Atelectasis


Incomplete expansion of the lungs, collapse of alveoli. This is the number one reason for post-op fever.


Athetosis


Repetitive, involuntary, slow, sinuous, writhing movements, especially severe in the hands.


Axonotmesis


Injury to an axon that results in Wallerian degeneration. The nerve can regenerate over time.


Basset lesion


A lesion on the anterior dorsal lateral aspect of the articular cartilage of the talus caused by rubbing from a hypertrophic anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament.


Bell palsy


Sudden paralysis on one side of the face. Named after the physician who first described it. In the majority of patients, there is a preceding condition such as stress, fatigue, or a common cold. The disorder involves the seventh cranial nerve and the facial muscles it supplies. Patients usually recover completely within several months.


Blair fusion


An ankle fusion salvage procedure used when the talar body is missing or cannot be salvaged. Consists of an anterior sliding tibial graft into the head of the talus.


BMI (body mass index)


BMI is used as a screening tool to determine body fat percentage to indicate whether a person is underweight, overweight, or obese. Also referred to as Quetelet index.

































BMI


Classification


under 18.5


Underweight


18.5-24.9


Normal weight


25.0-29.9


Overweight


30.0-34.9


Class I obesity


35.0-39.9


Class II obesity


40.0 and above


Class III obesity


BMI = pounds/inches2 × 703


BMI + kilograms/meters2




Bovie


Electrocautery.


Brodie abscess


A foci of bone destruction caused by osteomyelitis filled with pus or connective tissue.


Capsulorrhaphy


Suturing of a joint capsule.


Carcinoma


A malignant tumor arising from epidermis or visceral organ cells and tends to give rise to metastases.


Causalgia


A burning pain due to a specific peripheral nerve.


Charcot triad


A symptom of MS consisting of nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech (syllables are separated by pauses).


Cheyne-stokes respirations


Repeating cycle of gradual increase in depth of breathing followed by gradual decrease in depth of breathing until apnea occurs. Seen in CNS disorders and uremia.


Chopart joint


The midtarsal joint.


Chvostek sign


A clinical test to diagnose increased blood calcium levels. A light tap on the facial nerve will cause the facial muscles to contract.


Cicatrix


Scar.


Clinodactyly


Congenital curly toe.


Coleman block test


Determines whether a rearfoot varus deformity is flexible or rigid. The patient is placed on a wooden block 1 inch thick such that the entire foot is standing on the block except the medial forefoot. In a flexible rearfoot varus, the 1st metatarsal will plantarflex down to the ground and the rearfoot varus will evert into a corrected position.


Constitutional symptoms


Symptoms which are indicative of disorders of the whole body. Symptoms involving more than one body system (i.e., fever, chills, weight loss, excessive sweating).


Crescent sign


The early sign of avascular necrosis, which represents a subchondral fracture through the insertion of the individual trabeculae.


Crista


A ridge in the plantar articular surface of the 1st metatarsal head that separates the sesamoids.


Crowe sign


Axillary freckling, pathognomonic for von Recklinghausen disease.


Cyma line


A smooth “S” configuration formed by the talonavicular and calcanealcuboid joints seen on a lateral x-ray. In the ideal foot, the cyma line is intact. With a pronated foot the cyma, line is anteriorly displaced, meaning that the talonavicular joint is anterior to the calcanealcuboid joint and does not follow a nice “S” shape. With a supinated foot, the talonavicular joint is posteriorly displaced.


Cytochrome P450


Cytochrome P450 constitutes a family of enzymes that metabolize a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances in the liver, most notably drugs. The 450 comes from the fact that they maximally absorb light at 450 nm wavelength. The significance of the enzyme comes from the fact that many drugs may be largely dependent on a single form of P450 for their metabolism in the liver. If the enzyme is actively metabolizing a particular drug and another drug is administered that relies on the same for P450 for its metabolism, the drug may reach toxic levels at relatively low doses.


Desiccate


To dry out.


Diastasis


Dislocation or separation of two normally attached bones.


Dolor


Pain, one of the classic signs of inflammation.


Down syndrome (a.k.a. trisomy 21)


An autosomal abnormality with mental retardation. Classic facial features include an epicanthal fold, thick lips, large tongue with deep furrows, and a small nose with a broad bridge. Other features may include a broad short neck, clinodactyly of the fifth finger,
syndactyly, polydactyly, and a simian line (a single transverse palmer crease).


Dysphagia


Difficulty swallowing.


Dyspareunia


Painful sexual intercourse.


Eburnation


The final end product of bone sclerosis and is sometimes used as a term that is synonymous with bone sclerosis.


Ecchymosis


Bruise.


Ectrodactyly


“Lobster claw” foot.


Ehlers-Danlos syndrome


Collagen and elastic tissues are abnormal, resulting in thin, easily stretched hyperelastic skin. Ligamentous laxity, resulting in flat feet, genu valgus, congenital hip dislocation, and scoliosis. Aortic aneurysm is common.


Endoneurium


The interstitial connective tissue in a peripheral nerve, surrounds a single nerve fiber.


Enthesitis


Inflammation of the entheses, the site where a tendon or ligament attaches to bone.


Enthesopathy


Disorder involving the attachment of a ligament or tendon to bone.


Epineurium


The sheath of a peripheral nerve.


Eschar


Scab.


Fibrous dysplasia


An abnormal bone growth where normal bone is replaced with fibrous bone tissue. Radiographically, it is often described as having a ground-glass appearance. Causes abnormal swelling and expansion of the bone.


Fistula


Abnormal communication between two hollow, epithelialization organs or between a hollow organ and the exterior (skin).


Foley


Bladder catheter.


Foot drop


Failure to raise the foot during the swing phase of gait. Often results in a “slapping” gait. Causes may include CVA, trauma, CMT, polio, Friedreich ataxia, infection, spinal tumor/lesion, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Dejerine-Sottas syndrome.


Genu valgum


Knock knees, often seen in obese female children.


Genu varum


Bowleg, may be associated with Rickets, abnormal Ca and Ph metabolism, or Blount disease.


Gigli saw


A bone saw that consists of a flexible roughened wire used to cut through bone.


Gower sign


A classic sign of pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy. Because of muscle weakness, patients raise themselves to the standing position by crawling up their legs.


Hawkins sign


A subchondral radiolucent band in the proximal talus. This indicates bone resorption and revascularization following AVN.


Hanging heel sign


Used in the diagnosis of metatarsus adductus, the deformity persists as viewed plantarly when the foot is lifted by the toes.


Heloma durum


Hard corn over the top of the toe.

Nov 20, 2018 | Posted by in ORTHOPEDIC | Comments Off on Glossary
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