Sean N. Martin

Michael W. Johnson


  • Hematuria and proteinuria are the most common urinary findings in athletes. It is estimated that between 17% and 22% of marathon runners experience postrace gross or microscopic hematuria (5,14). Similarly, 55% of rowers and football players, 73% of boxers, and 80% of swimmers, lacrosse players, and track athletes experience postexertional hematuria (1,3). Further, 30%-69% of runners develop proteinuria following the completion of a marathon regardless of gender (5,15).

  • Acute renal failure in athletes is a rare event and is usually associated with volume depletion, rhabdomyolysis, or the nephrotoxic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

  • Although the incidence has not been directly studied, studies have demonstrated that sports are responsible for up to 30% of renal trauma in the pediatric population (2). Contusion is the most frequent kidney and bladder injury, whereas laceration and rupture may be life threatening. Athletes in gymnastics, horseback riding, football, ice hockey, rugby, boxing, and soccer have the highest incidence of renal trauma, whereas bicycle riding is the most common sports-related cause of renal injury (8). Overall, individual sports, rather than team sports, account for the majority renal injuries (13).

  • The male genitalia are often subjected to trauma ranging from testicular contusions to penile frostbite. Bikers are at risk for overuse pudendal nerve injury and straddle injuries.

  • The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in athletes is similar to that of the general population, although a study of college athletes showed they tend to be at higher risk for certain lifestyle behaviors. These maladaptive behaviors include less safe sex, greater number of sexual partners, and less contraceptive use when compared with their nonathlete peers (14).


Clinical Features

May 22, 2016 | Posted by in SPORT MEDICINE | Comments Off on Genitourinary
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