Examination of the Lower Limb

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA


Electronic supplementary material 

The online version of this chapter (doi:10.​1007/​978-3-319-39694-1_​24) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

24.1 Motor Examination

Muscles are tested and graded using the MRC system: 0: no function, 1: flicker, 2: movement with gravity eliminated, 3: movement against gravity, 4: movement against some resistance, 5: normal.


Fig. 24.1
Ilio-psoas (femoral n and lumbar plexus directly): hip flexion


Fig. 24.2
Quadriceps (femoral n): knee extension


Fig. 24.3
Hip adductors (obturator n)


Fig. 24.4
Hip abductors (superior gluteal n)


Fig. 24.5
Gluteus maximus (inferior gluteal n): hip extension


Fig. 24.6
Hamstrings (arrows) (sciatic n): knee flexion


Fig. 24.7
Plantar flexion: gastrocnemius (tibial n)


Fig. 24.8
Plantar flexion: soleus (tibial n)


Fig. 24.9
Toe flexion: flexor digitorum, flexor hallucis longus (tibial n)


Fig. 24.10
Tibialis posterior (tibial n): foot inversion in plantar flexion; the patient is asked to push the foot down and in against resistance. In the setting of a foot drop if this movement is lost, it suggests an L5 radiculopathy or a high sciatic nerve injury. This movement should be preserved in the setting of an isolated peroneal neuropathy

Only gold members can continue reading. Log In or Register to continue

Aug 29, 2017 | Posted by in ORTHOPEDIC | Comments Off on Examination of the Lower Limb

Full access? Get Clinical Tree

Get Clinical Tree app for offline access