Initially described by Duplay as “peri-arthritis” in 1872, Codman coined the term “frozen shoulder” in 1934. He described a condition in which there was insidious onset of shoulder pain associated with stiffness and difficulty in sleeping on the side. He also identified the hallmark of the disease, that is, loss of external rotation and elevation. Naviesar coined the term “adhesive capsulitis” in 1945.
11 Frozen Shoulder
Idiopathic loss of range of motion of the glenohumeral (GH) joint
Contracture of the GH joint, scarring of the capsule, and ligamentous complex
Histologic evaluation shows capsular fibroblastic proliferation
Natural history is that of eventual recovery:
Up to 50% of patients have some residual stiffness/pain.
II. Risk factors
Associated with endocrine disorders:
Have worse outcomes.
Hyper- or hypothyroid
Other autoimmune disorders.
Rotator cuff (RTC) repair
Breast cancer surgery.
Cerebrovascular accident or stroke
Age 40–60 years
Female > Male.
Increasing pain and decreased motion
Can last from 6 weeks to 9 months.
Pain improves, but motion loss
Can last 4–6 months.
Improvement in motion and function
Can take 6–24 months.
Coracohumeral ligament and rotator interval have been described as the essential lesion
Rotator interval (▶ Fig. 11.1 ):
Triangular region between the anterior border of the supraspinatus and the superior border of the subscapularis
Superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL) and coracohumeral ligament (CHL) (▶ Fig. 11.2 )
Arthroscopic image of synovitis in frozen shoulder.