YNSA Ypsilon Points – Channel Points
“It is by virtue of the twelve channels that human life exist[s,] that diseases arise, that human beings can be treated and illnesses cured. The twelve channels are where beginners start and masters end. To beginners it seems easy. The masters know how difficult it is. Qi cannot travel without a path just as water flows or the sun and moon orbit without rest so do the yin vessels nourish the zang and the yang vessels nourish the fu.” – Su Wen
“Experience is a comb which nature gives to men when they are bald.” – Chinese Proverb
Ypsilon points. Named after Yamamoto for the 12 channels found on the side of the head in the four left and four right quadrants.
Channels. The Chinese discovered 12 channels in which qi flows. YNSA can be used to treat a myriad of channel-based problems with just a few needles.
YNSA Ypsilon Points
The 12 Ypsilon points correspond to the 12 major Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) channels, and they relate to TCM and Five Phase diagnosis and treatment. These 12 Ypsilon points may be used whenever TCM or Five Phase channels need to be used. The 12 Ypsilon points are present in all four quadrants of the head, both left and right. These points were named and numbered by Dr. Yamamoto. YNSA neck diagnosis corresponds to the TCM and Five Phase pulse diagnosis regarding channel repletion (excess) and/or vacuity (deficiency). YNSA diagnostic and treatment methods may be used as stand-alone diagnostics and stand-alone treatment, or YNSA points may be used in conjunction with body acupuncture modalities such as TCM, Five Phase and Energetics (French) acupuncture treatments. Table 7–1 lists the channels/YNSA point order. Yamamoto started out with the small intestine and finished with the heart. TCM states that the qi starts at the lung and Five Phase system numbers the channels starting with the heart, following the Chinese clock of qi flow. Feely numbered the channels according to the way one would identify the Ypsilon points on the side of the head, starting with the gall bladder moving up the line to the liver, then the heart and across to the pericardium, next the lung, then on the second line finding the spleen, stomach, and small intestine points, then on to the lower horizontal line identifying the kidney, bladder, triple burner, and large intestine.
History of Channel Theory
The history of how Channel theory was developed in TCM body acupuncture is that different theories were advanced to explain the discovery of these channels. There are two basic types of theories: points first and channels second or channels first and points second. According to the first theory, there were centuries of observation of tender points in the body—during the course of disease and as the symptoms were alleviated with the use of massage and heat. Initially the points were tabulated as their relationships were discovered, then they were linked into groups of common characteristics and effects. They then developed pathways of channels. According to the second theory—channels first and points second—the propagation of sensation during the course of massage and the exploration of internal structures through meditation and qi gong practice led to the discovery of the pathways or channels, with knowledge of the specific points coming later. During the excavation of the Western Han dynasty tomb Mawangdui, a silk book was discovered containing information that describes the pathways of 11 channels but does not refer to any specific points.
The functions of these channels are:
(1) transporting qi and blood to the body, thus rendering the body an integrated whole, (2) protecting the body, (3) responding to dysfunction in the body, and (4) transmitting qi to the diseased area. The complex interweaving network of channels provides transportation of qi and blood to every part of the body. All the sense organs and tissues are nourished, energized, and warmed by qi and blood.
The analogy of the plant may be helpful in understanding the channels and their organs. The zang fu (solid and hollow) organs may be perceived as the roots of the channels. These channels themselves are the stems, and the different body tissues with the sense organs are flowers. These channels have numerous interconnections. For example, the primary lung channel originates in the stomach and passes through the large intestine and the diaphragm, whereas the primary channel of the heart connects with the small intestine and lung. This theory of the channels underlines one of the most significant studies of Chinese medicine. The channels form the physiological interconnections that render the body an integrated whole rather than independent units, with the dense connection of channels in the scalp and head. Individual channels may be identified and stimulated to affect an entire area and organ with just one needle using YNSA methodologies.
The Su Wen says, “When the pathogen comes to dwell as a guest, first it resides in the skin and the body hair. If it remains and does not leave, it will enter the minute connecting channels. If it remains and does not leave, it will enter the luo connecting channels. If it remains and does not leave, it will enter the channels reaching the five zang and spreading into the intestines and into the stomach.” Various kinds of channels occupy different depths within the body and act as nourishing vessels to provide energy in different layers of the body, preventing penetration of pathogens. Wind, cold, damp, heat, fire, and dryness are important causes for disease according to Traditional Chinese Medicine. When extreme, with the body’s resistance low, these climatic conditions can effectively penetrate the body into the deeper levels such as the zang fu organs, bones, and joints. This penetration into the deep layers causes serious disease. It is from this Chinese medical philosophy that we get the four phases of disease as it travels from superficial to deep in the human body.
Drs. Paul Nogier and Toshikatsu Yamamoto have identified four phases in their respective microsystems, auricular and scalp. These four phases have been correlated with the progression of illness from superficial to intermediate to deep to spiritual essence. Dr. Nogier has identified three phases in the front of the ear and one phase on the back of the ear. Dr. Yamamoto identified Ypsilon and Basic points that have four phases. Using the Ypsilon points as an example, when an acute illness comes on, the treatment frequently is Yin of YIN. Then, as it progresses deeper into the body, the phase changes to Yang of YIN, then to Yin of YANG, and finally, to Yang of YANG—when here, it has progressed deeply into the person to affect spirit and psyche of the individual. As the illness penetrates deeper into the body, the YNSA treatment approach requires needle placement at the properly selected phase or quadrant.
Relationship of Channels and Body Dysfunction
TCM and YNSA promote harmony and balance within the energetic body system. When the harmony of the body is disrupted due to any cause or disease, the channel can respond in any number of ways. First, when there is disease in the channels themselves, you have local tenderness, pain, weakness, distention, numbness, and tingling. This disease of the membrane means there is impaired flow of qi or blood, which is stagnation or insufficiency of qi and blood leading to malnourishment at the cellular level and progressing up to the organ level. Second, when the zang fu organs have become injured, depending on the kind of injury, the disorder can then relate anywhere along the acupuncture channel. Diseases can then be transmitted via the channels, passing from one zang fu organ to another. Finally, in some cases, in the course of the disease the channel can be discolored and visible, showing a purple color indicating heat due to stasis of blood, or a pale color as a result of a vacuity of qi and blood.
The acupuncture channels serve as conduits to transmit acupuncture’s stimulation of qi from the acupuncture point to the diseased area of the body, rendering the acupuncture treatment effective. This is done by the needle stimulating body acupuncture points electrically, then biochemically, thereby regulating the flow of qi and blood in the whole course of the channel.1 The same can be said of microsystem treatments and of YNSA in particular.
The Twelve Primary Acupuncture Channels
The 12 primary channels run vertically bilaterally and symmetrically. Each channel corresponds to and connects internally with one of the zang fu organs as shown in Table 2–2 in Chapter 2. These channels correspond to the zang organs that are yin and the fu organs that are yang. There are six yin organs and five yang organs. Triple burner (TB) is a yang channel without a physical organ, so there are six yin and six yang channels. There are three yin channels and three yang channels in the arm. There are three yin channels and three yang channels in the leg. The yang channels traverse the outer surface of the arm or the leg and travel to the head.
The yin channels traverse the inner surface of the limbs, abdomen, and chest. The three yin channels of the hand: lung (LU), pericardium (PC), or heart (HT) begin in the chest and travel along the inner surface of the arm to the hand. Three yang channels of the hand are large intestine (LI), triple burner (TB), and small intestine (SI). They begin in the hand and travel along the outer surface of the arm to the head.
The three yang channels of the foot are the stomach (ST), gall bladder (GB), and bladder (BL). They begin on the face in the region of the eye and travel down along the body on the outer surface of the leg to the foot. The three yin channels of the foot are the spleen (SP), liver (LR), and kidney (KI). They begin in the foot and travel along the inner surface of the leg or the flank. These 12 channels comprise the internal and external pathways of qi and blood. The external pathway is what is normally shown on most acupuncture charts and is superficial. All the acupuncture points of the channel lie on the external pathway. The internal pathways are the deep paths of the channels that enter the body cavities and are not accessible for acupuncture needling.
The naming of each of the 12 channels is based on the zang (solid) or fu (hollow) organs to which it belongs, second, the limb, upper or lower, through which it traverses, and its yin or yang identity.
There are 12 divergent channels that branch out from the primary channels and have no specific points of their own. Pathways make internal linkages that may not be made by the primary channels. Divergent channels belong to the yang primary channels, the interrelated zang or fu organs, as well as their internally or externally related channels. The divergent channels strengthen the yin and yang relationship between the internally and externally related channels in zang fu. They also distribute qi and blood to the head and face. They integrate parts of the body that are not supplied or connected to the primary channels.
Eight Extraordinary Vessels
Besides the 12 primary channels and 12 divergent channels, there are eight extraordinary vessels or curious channels. These extraordinary vessels are conception (ren mai), the governing (du mai), the penetrating (chong mai), the girdle (dai mai), the yin motility (yin qiao), and the yang motility (yang qiao), the yin linking (yin wei), and the yang linking (yang wei). Of the eight extraordinary vessels, only the conception and governing vessels have their own acupuncture points. The others use points of the 12 primary channels.
The extraordinary vessels act as reservoirs to absorb repletion qi and blood from the primary channels. The extraordinary vessels link the 12 primary channels, forming various pools or seas, the sea of yang channels, the sea of yin channels, the sea of blood, the sea of qi, the sea of marrow, and the sea of nourishment. The girdle vessel (dai mai) encircles the body at the waist, binding the vertical paths of the 12 primary channels. The yin motility (yin qiao) is said to dominate quietness in the body. The yang motility (yang qiao) is said to dominate activity of the body. The yin linking (yin wei) is said to dominate the interior parts of the body. The yang linking (yang wei) is said to dominate the exterior parts of the body.
The extraordinary vessels protect the body as a defensive qi for the chest, abdomen, and back from any exterior pathological factors. It is these three extraordinary vessels, conception (ren mai), governing (du mai), and penetrating (chong mai), that originate in the pelvic cavity and are directly linked to the kidneys, which are the storehouse of preheaven qi. This function of the extraordinary vessels brings to light the relationship between the constitutional vigor and the defense against disease. There are other channels that do not particularly relate directly to YNSA at this point, such as luo connecting channels. The rest of the point categories of TCM are not directly related to YNSA and will not be discussed.
Twelve Primary Channel Pathways and Pathology
This section is designed for the practitioner who is not completely familiar with TCM or how the TCM practitioner thinks about the acupuncture channel and the related organ. By learning these characteristics, one would easily further investigate the possibility of using YNSA neck diagnosis or abdominal diagnosis to confirm the necessity of treating the Ypsilon point relating to these 12 channels, thus using one needle to treat the whole. By studying these pathological signs and symptoms, one is able to then predict the probability of finding a positive YNSA neck diagnosis and tender Ypsilon point. Andrew Ellis, Nigel Wiseman, and Ken Boss in their book, Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture, provide a wonderful description of the flow of qi through the channels, and their description is greatly relied upon in the following discussions.2
Lung Channel—Hand Tai Yin
This primary lung channel starts in the region of the stomach in the middle burner (jiao) and descends to connect to the large intestine. It returns upward passing the opening of the stomach and penetrating the diaphragm, and goes to the lung, its home. The lung channel continues to ascend the respiratory tract into the throat and moves laterally toward the clavicle into the axilla. From here it runs down the anterior aspect of the upper arm, lateral to the heart and pericardium channels. It traverses the cubital fossa and continues along the anterior aspect of the forearm to the radial styloid process at the wrist. It crosses the radial pulse, traverses the thenar eminence, and travels along the radial side of the thumb to its tip at the nail.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Lung Channel
Fever and an aversion to cold with or without sweating. There is nasal congestion, headache, pain in the supraclavicular fossa, pain in the shoulders, chest, and back, cold pain along the channel of the arm.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Lung Channel
Coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, rapid breathing, fullness of the chest and oppression in the chest, expectoration of phlegm, dry throat, abnormal urine color, restlessness, coughing up of blood, heat in the palms of the hands.
Distention of the abdomen and thin stool or diarrhea. Repletion of lung qi is associated with back pain, wind-cold contraction with spontaneous sweating, frequent urination, and yawning. Insufficiency of lung qi is associated with shoulder and back pain accompanied by fear of cold, shortness of breath, distressed rapid breathing, and abnormal color of the urine.
Large Intestine Channel—Hand Yang Ming
The primary large intestine channel pathway. The hand yang ming large intestine channel begins at the radial side of the tip of the index finger and proceeds upward between the first and second metacarpal bones of the hand. It then traverses between the tendons of the extensor pollicis longus and brevis at the wrist. It continues along the radial margin of the forearm to the lateral aspect of the elbow and then up the lateral aspect of the upper arm over the shoulder. After intersection with the hand tai yang small intestine channel at SI-12, it rises to just below the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra and intersects the governing vessel at GV-14. GV-14 is where all six yang channels meet. The large intestine channel then travels straight to the supraclavicular fossa and ST-12; from there it connects through the lung and passes through the diaphragm and goes directly to the large intestine, its home.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Large Intestine Channel
Fever, parched dry mouth, and thirst, sore throat, nose bleed, tooth ache, pain or redness of the eyes, swelling of the neck, palpable red swelling and inhibited movement of the fingers. There is pain and sensation of cold or painful, palpably hot, red, swollen shoulder and upper arm.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Large Intestine Channel
Abdominal pain; migrating abdominal pain; thin stool; slimy, sticky, yellow stool; rapid breathing; and dyspnea. Repletion of large intestine qi causes distention, swelling, and heat along the course of the channel. Insufficiency of large intestine qi causes cold and shivering with an inability to regain warmth.
Spasm, stiffness, and pain or strain along the course of the large intestine channel with the inability to raise the arm or rotate the neck left or right.
Stomach Channel—Foot Yang Ming
The primary stomach channel. The foot yang ming stomach channel starts at the side of the nose then ascends to the inner canthus of the eye to intersect with the foot tai yang bladder channel at BL-1. It then descends parallel to the nose, penetrates the axilla into the upper gum, and joins the governing vessel at GV-26. It skirts back along the upper and lower lips to join the conception vessel at CV-24 in the mentolabial groove of the chin. It then runs along the mandible to ST-5 and rounds the angle of the mandible to ST-6. It proceeds upward in front of the ear and intersects the foot shao yang gall bladder channel at GB-3 and continues along the hairline. It then intersects the foot shao yang channel again at GB-6 and crosses the midline of the forehead and intersects with the governing vessel at GV-24.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Stomach Channel
High fever, flushed face, sweating, clouding of the spirit, delirium, manic agitation, aversion to cold, pain in the eyes, dry nose, nose bleed, lesion of the lips and in the mouth, sore larynx swollen at the neck, stiff neck, chest pain, cold or pain, redness or swelling of the lower limbs.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Stomach Channel
Pronounced abdominal distention, fullness and edema, restlessness and discomfort while active or recumbent, mania or withdrawal. There can also be rapid hunger, yellow urine, and hypersecretion of the stomach. Repletion stomach qi gives rise to heat in the anterior aspect of the body, persistent hunger, and yellow urine. Insufficient stomach qi produces cold in the anterior aspect of the body, shivering, and stomach cold resulting in distention and fullness. The main musculoskeletal pathological signs include strained middle toe, spasms in the lower leg, hardened muscles in the foot, pain and spasms in the thigh muscles, pain and swelling in the inguinal area, abdominal tension and spasm extending to the neck and the jaw, dryness of the mouth, spasm with inability to close the eye, heat with inability to open the eye, abnormal stimulation of the orbicularis oris muscle causing abnormal mouth position.
Spleen Channel—Foot Tai Yin
The primary spleen channel. The foot tai yin spleen channel starts on the medial tip of the great toe and runs along the border of the light and dark skin of the medial aspect of the foot. It traverses in front of the medial malleolus and up the posterior side of the leg along the posterior margin of the tibia. The spleen channel then runs anterior to the foot jue yin liver channel passing medial to the knee and up the anterior medial abdomen and intersects the conception vessel at CV-3 and CV-4 before going to the spleen, its home, and connecting with the stomach. This channel then continues upward and passes through the diaphragm to intersect with the foot shao yang gall bladder at GB-24 and the foot jue yin liver at LR-14. From there it descends to the side of the esophagus and crosses the hand tai yin lung channel at LU-1 and finally proceeds up to the root of the tongue to disperse over its lower surface.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Spleen Channel
Heaviness in the head and body, fatigue and weakness of the limbs, general fever, pain in the posterior mandibular region of the lower cheek, motor impairment of the tongue, wasting and atrophy of the muscles and limbs, cold along the inside of the thigh and knee, edema, swelling of the legs and feet.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Spleen Channel
Pain in the ventral area of the abdomen, thin diarrhea or stool containing undigested food, nausea and vomiting, lower abdominal lump, reduced food intake, jaundice, inhibited urination. Signs of repletion spleen qi are spasms and foot pain. Signs of insufficiency of spleen qi cause abdominal fullness, intestinal rumbling, undigested food, and diarrhea.
Strain of the large toe, pain in the medial malleolus, pain or cramp in the gastrocnemius, pain in the medial aspect of the knee, pain in the inner thigh and inguinal region, cutting pain in the genitals.
Heart Channel—Hand Shao Yin
The primary heart channel. The hand shao yin heart channel starts in the heart, merging with the blood vessels surrounding the organ; traveling downward it passes through the diaphragm to connect to the small intestine.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Heart Channel
General fever, headache, pain in the eyes, chest, back muscles, dry throat with the urge to drink, hot or painful palms of the hands and feet, pain in the scapular region and/or the medial aspect of the forearm.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Heart Channel
Cardiac chest pain, fullness and pain in the chest and lateral costal region, pain in the hypochondriac region, rapid breathing, discomfort when recumbent, dizziness with fainting, essence-spirit disorders.
Internal tension or cramping, infracardiac deep pain, pain and cramping as a strain along the inner aspect of the medial arm.
Small Intestine Channel—Hand Tai Yin
The primary small intestine channel. The hand tai yin small intestine channel starts in the outside edge of the little finger tip and travels along the ulnar side of the hand to the wrist, merging in the ulnar styloid process. It then continues up the posterior aspect of the metacarpal lunate bone. It passes between the olecranon to the ulnar and the medial epicondyle of the humerus on the medial side of the elbow. The small intestine channel then runs up the posterior medial side of the upper arm, emerging behind the shoulder and circling around the inferior fossa to the superior fossa of the scapula. At the top of shoulder it intersects with the foot tai yang bladder channel at BL-41 and BL-11, connecting with the governing vessel at GV-14 before turning downward to the supraclavicular fossa. Here it submerges and connects with the heart and follows with the esophagus down through the diaphragm to the stomach. It then intersects with the conception vessel internally at CV-13 and CV-12 before going to the small intestine itself, its home.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Small Intestine
Erosion of the glossal and oral mucosa, pain in the cheeks, sore pharynx, lachrymation, stiffness of the neck, pain in the lateral aspect of the shoulders and upper arm.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Small Intestine
Lower abdominal pain and distention, pain stretching around the lumbar region, lower abdominal pain radiating into the testicles, diarrhea, pain in the stomach with dry feces and constipation.
Strain and inability to support the little finger, pain in the lateral aspect of the elbow, pain in the medial aspect of the upper arm and axilla, axilla pain that extends back over the scapula and neck, tinnitus, pain in the ear, pain in the submandibular region, the need to close the eyes for a while before one can get them to focus, spasm and tension in the neck resulting in swelling.
Bladder Channel—Foot Tai Yang
The primary urinary bladder channel is as follows: the foot tai yang bladder channel starts in the inner canthus of the eye and travels upward over the forehead intersecting the governing vessel at GV-24 and the foot shao yang gall bladder channel at GB-25 and GB-15. It travels up to the vertex of the head and again meets with the governing vessel at GV-20. From the vertex, a branch descends from the temple and the region around the ear intersecting GB-7, GB-8, GB-9, GB-10, GB-11, and GB-12. From the vertex, another branch enters the brain, meets DU-17, and emerges to descend to the nape of the neck where the channel splits into two branches. The medial branch descends along the posterior aspect of the neck, intersecting with DU-14 and DU-13. It descends along the spine 1.5 cun lateral to the midline all the way down to the lumbar region. It penetrates deep into the paravertebral muscles connecting with the kidneys and linking with the bladder. It further descends from the lumbar region into the sacrum, crosses the buttocks, and descends to the popliteal fossa of the knee at BL-40. The lateral branch descends from the nape of the neck to the medial border of the scapula and then parallel to the spine 3 cun lateral to the midline all the way to the gluteal region. It then crosses the buttocks, intersects with GB-30, then descends along the posterior aspect of the thigh meeting up at the popliteal fossa and BL-40. It travels down the gastrocnemius muscle and emerges at BL-60at the lateral malleolus along the fifth metatarsal bone ending at BL-67 on the lateral side of the tip of the fifth toe.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Bladder Channel
Chills and fever; headache; stiff neck; pain in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions along the spine; ocular pain and lachrymation; and pain in the posterior thigh, popliteal region, gastrocnemius, and foot.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Bladder Channel
Pain and distention in the lower abdomen, inhibited micturition, urinary block and enuresis, mental disorders.
Strain or inability to support the little toe, pain and swelling of the heel, spasm and tension of the popliteal region, spasm or tension in the neck, inability to raise the arm, muscular discomfort in the axilla, strained muscles in the supraclavicular fossa.
Kidney Channel— Foot Shao Yin
The primary kidney channel is as follows: the foot shao yin kidney channel starts on the underside of the little toe, crosses the sole of the foot obliquely, and emerges out of the arch of the foot under the navicular tuberosity at KI-2. It then proceeds posterior to the medial malleolus and continues into the heel. From there it travels up the rear medial aspect of the lower leg to intersect with the foot tai yin spleen channel at SP-6. Traveling up through the gastrocnemius muscle it ascends across the medial aspect of the popliteal fossa and the posteromedial where it meets the governing vessel at GV-1. It continues up to the link with the spinal column, up the spinal column to the kidney, its home. Afterward, it turns downward to connect with the bladder and intersect with the conception vessel at CV-4 and CV-3.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Kidney Channel
Low back pain, frigidity of the legs, atrophy of the legs, dry mouth, sore pharynx, pain in the lateral gluteal region and in the posterior aspect of the thigh. There may also be pain in the soles of the feet.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Kidney Channel
Dizziness, facial edema, ashen complexion, shortness of breath, short rapid breathing, somnolence or restlessness, enduring diarrhea, thin stool or dry stool evacuated with difficulty, nausea and vomiting, distention, and impotence.
Cramping at the bottom of the foot, spasms, twisting or pain along the course of the tendons and ligaments. The major symptoms associated with these are convulsions and spasms that occur in epileptic diseases. If the disease attacks the back side of the patient, then the patient cannot bend forward. If the disease attacks the chest and abdomen side of the patient, then the patient cannot lean forward. In the yang diseases, the upper body curves backward. In the yin diseases, the upper body curves forward.
Pericardium Channel—Hand Jue Yin
The primary pericardium channel is as follows: the hand jue yin pericardium channel starts in the chest where its home is. Descending through the diaphragm into the abdomen, it connects successively to the upper, middle, and lower burners. It then runs horizontally from the center of the chest to the axilla, down the medial aspect of the upper arm into the forearm between the tendons of the pulmarus longus muscle and the flexor carpi radialis muscle. It traverses through the palm to the tip of the middle finger.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Pericardium Channel
Stiffness in the neck, spasm in the limbs, red facial complexion, pain in the eyes, subaxillary swelling, hypertonicity of the elbow and arm-inhibiting movement, and hot palms of the hands.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Pericardium Channel
Delirious speech, clouding inversion, vexation, fullness and oppression in the chest and lateral costal region, aphasia, palpitations, heart pain, constant laughter, and other essence-spirit disorders.
Triple Burner Channel—Hand Shao Yang
The primary triple burner channel is as follows: the hand shao yang triple burner channel starts in the ulnar side of the tip of the fourth finger and travels up between the fourth and fifth metacarpal bones on the dorsum of the hand to the outside of the wrist. It then proceeds up the posterior midline of the forearm between the radius and the ulna. It runs over the olecranon process of the elbow and then travels up the posterior midline of the upper arm to the shoulder. It meets the hand tai yang small intestine channel at SI-12 and then runs over the back to meet the governing vessel at GV-14. It crosses back over the shoulder and intersects with the foot shao yang gall bladder channel at GB-21 before running into the supraclavicular fossa penetrating into the interior and traveling into the midchest region to meet the conception vessel at CV-17 where it links with the pericardium. It then descends internally to its home in each of the three burners successively.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Triple Burner Channel
Sore throat, pain in the cheeks, reddening of the eyes, deafness, pain behind the ears and the posterior aspect of the shoulder and the upper arm.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Triple Burner Channel
Abdominal distention and fullness or hardness and fullness in the lower abdomen, urinary frequency and distress, edema of the skin, enuresis.
Gall Bladder Channel—Foot Shao Yang
The primary gall bladder channel is as follows: the foot shao yang gall bladder channel starts in the outer canthus of the eye and traverses the temple to TB-22. It then rises to the corner of the forehead where it intersects with the foot yang ming stomach channel at ST-8. Descending behind the ear it passes down the neck in front of the hand shao yang triple burner channel and meets the hand tai yang small intestine channel at SI-17. After reaching the shoulder, it turns back and runs back behind the triple burner channel to intersect the governing vessel at GV-14. It then moves parallel to the shoulder line outward to intersect with the hand tai yang small intestine channel at SI-12 before crossing over to ST-12 in the supraclavicular fossa.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Gall Bladder Channel
Alternating fever and chills, headache, ashen complexion, ocular pain, pain under the chin, subaxillary swelling, deafness, pain in the lateral knee and tibia.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Gall Bladder Channel
Pain in the lateral costal area, vomiting, bitter taste in the mouth, pain in the chest.
Inability to support the fourth toe, strains and sprains in the outer aspect of the knee, inability to extend and bend the knee at the popliteal fossa, strains in the pelvic region in the front or the sacral coccygeal region, pain extending up to the lateral costal region or the area just below the lateral costal region, pain in the supraclavicular fossa, the side of the chest, and/or neck, inability to hold the ipsilateral eye open when turning the head, all muscle and tendon problems, from inflammation to dislocation, including sprain and strain.
Liver Channel—Foot Jue Yin
The primary liver channel is as follows: the primary liver foot jue yin channel starts on the dorsum of the great toe and runs up the foot between the first and second metatarsal bones to a point 1 cun in front of the medial malleolus. It then proceeds upward to SP-6 where it intersects with the foot tai yin spleen channel and the foot shao yin kidney channel, continuing up the medial tai yin spleen channel 8 cun above the medial malleolus. It then runs posterior to the channel over the knee and thigh. It connects to the foot tai yin spleen channel at SP-12 and SP-13, then skirts along the genitalia and penetrates the lower abdomen where it meets the conception vessel at CV-2, CV-3, and CV-4. It then ascends, moving toward the lateral aspect of the trunk to its home in the liver, and continues, to connect with the gall bladder. Continuing its upward course through the diaphragm, it disperses over the costal region and then runs up to the neck posterior to the pharynx. Entering the nasal pharynx it meets the tissues surrounding the eyes. The channel finally runs up the forehead to meet the governing vessel at the vertex of the head.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the External Path of the Liver Channel
Headache, dizziness, blurred vision, tinnitus, fever, spasms of the limb.
Main Pathological Signs Associated with the Internal Path of the Liver Channel
Fullness and distention and pain in the costal region with lump, fullness, and thoracic oppression in the ventral part of the abdomen, abdominal pain, vomiting, jaundice, lower abdominal pain, enuresis, urinary blockage, dark yellow urine.
Inability to support the great toe, pain lateral to the medial malleolus, pain in the medial aspect of the knee, pain or spasm in the medial aspect of the thigh, dysfunction of the genitalia, impotence, retraction of the genitals due to cold injury, frequent erection due to heat damage.
YNSA Ypsilon Points and the Twelve Primary Channels
The 12 Ypsilon points in their energetic representative state correlate directly to the 12 TCM channels, or TCM and Five Phase radial pulse diagnosis.3 Ypsilon points may be used alone or with YNSA Basic points and/or with other body acupuncture approaches such as TCM, Five Phase, and Energetics (French).
YNSA Ypsilon Point Treatment
The treatment routine is to typically treat the Basic points first. If pain or other symptoms persist, then identify the need for Ypsilon points through neck diagnosis and/or pulse and/or abdominal diagnosis, see Figures 5–1, 5–3, 5–8, and Table 5–1 in Chapter 5.
The decision for use of Ypsilon point YNSA treatment is based on history and physical examination, but it becomes necessary when a positive YNSA neck diagnosis is made for an Ypsilon point.
The Ypsilon points are a dense collection of acupoints found bilaterally on the lateral sides of the scalp. They occur in front of the pinna of the ear, YIN, and behind the pinna of the ear, YANG. YIN is further divided in half; the lower half of the area in front of the pinna of the ear is called Yin of YIN. The upper half in front of the pinna of the ear is called Yang of YIN. Most of the time one will be treating patients in Yin of YIN. The lateral scalp behind the pinna of the ear is called YANG. YANG is also divided in half with the upper half called Yang of YANG and the lower half called Yin of YANG, as depicted in Figures 1–5 to 1–9 in Chapter 1.
In the author’s study of low back pain of various causes, the occurrences of Ypsilon points requiring treatment per quadrant were:4
• Yin of YIN 86.4 %; Yang of YIN 3.8%
• Yang of YANG 1.6 %; Yin of YANG 8.2%
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