Proprioception and Knee Arthroplasty

Proprioceptive mechanoreceptors provide neural feedback for position in space and are critical for three-dimensional interaction. Proprioception is decreased with osteoarthritis of the knees, which leads to increased risk of falling. As the prevalence of osteoarthritis increases so does the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and knowing the effect of TKA on proprioception is essential. This article reviews the literature regarding proprioception and its relationship to balance, aging, osteoarthritis, and the effect of TKA on proprioception. Knee arthroplasty involving retention of the cruciate ligaments is also reviewed, as well the evidence of proprioception in the posterior cruciate ligament after TKA.

Key points

  • Retention of the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may benefit proprioception.

  • The anterior cruciate ligament has been shown to play a significant role in proprioception, and it commonly is sacrificed in TKA. Evidence suggests that unicompartmental TKA that is cruciate sparing may result in improved proprioception compared with standard TKA.

  • Patients who are candidates for TKA are likely to already have decreased proprioception.

  • The overall effect of TKA on proprioception is debated, but many studies show evidence that it improves proprioception in appropriate surgical candidates.

  • Proper gap balancing and surgical technique are crucial to proprioception after TKA.

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Feb 23, 2017 | Posted by in ORTHOPEDIC | Comments Off on Proprioception and Knee Arthroplasty
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