Table 1 Classification for Hemorrhagic Shock in a 70 kg Male1
in patients with pulmonary contusions and other severe chest trauma will further diminish oxygenation within the days after injury. Tube thoracostomy will alleviate pneumothoraces and hemothoraces. Reduction and stabilization of axial and extremity fractures promote pain relief, upright posture, and mobility from bed, all of which reduce risks of pulmonary and other complications.
Table 2 Injury Severity Score (ISS) is Determined by Identifying the Three Most Injured Areas, Then Determining the Severity of Each as Defined by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) Designated as A, B, and C.5 The ISS = A2 + B2 + C2
and is generally combined with provisional or definitive fixation, as soon as is safely possible. Stabilization of an open fracture provides support to the surrounding soft tissues and decreases the risk of infection. Occasionally, provisional external fixation is preferred, because of massive contamination, surgical delay, or systemic instability, eg, severe hemorrhage or head injury.