Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid within the joints. Gout affects millions worldwide and has an increasing prevalence. Recent research has been carried out to better qualify and quantify the risk factors predisposing individuals to gout. These can largely be broken into nonmodifiable risk factors, such as gender, age, race, and genetics, and modifiable risk factors, such as diet and lifestyle. Increasing knowledge of factors predisposing certain individuals to gout could potentially lead to improved preventive practices. This review summarizes the nonmodifiable and modifiable risk factors associated with development of gout.
The prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia increases with age; women tend to be affected by gout at an older age than their male counterparts.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic polymorphisms, mainly affecting renal urate excretion, which alter serum uric acid levels and subsequently the risk of developing gout.
Alcohol, purines from meat and seafood, and fructose- or sugar-sweetened beverages have been associated with increased risk of incident gout, whereas dairy products, coffee, vitamin C, and cherries may protect patients from developing hyperuricemia and gout.
Obesity and weight gain of 13.6 kg or greater is associated with risk of incident gout.